منتديات ابن الدلتا
عزيزي الزائر! سجلاتنا تفيد انك لست عضو لدينا في المنتدى,في حال رغبتم بالاِنضمام الى أسرتنا في المنتدى ينبغي عليكم التسجيل وان كنت عضو منتسب لدينا فعليك بالدخول
المدير العام
محمد شريف

 
الرئيسيةاليوميةمكتبة الصورس .و .جبحـثالتسجيلدخول

شاطر | 
 

 مسرحيه The Glass Menagerie

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي اذهب الى الأسفل 
كاتب الموضوعرسالة
محمد طاهر
Admin
Admin
avatar

الابراج : الميزان
عدد المساهمات : 1936
تاريخ الميلاد : 25/09/1977
تاريخ التسجيل : 04/12/2009
العمر : 40
الموقع : http://ibneldelta.ahlamontada.com
العمل/الترفيه : الانترنت

مُساهمةموضوع: مسرحيه The Glass Menagerie   الأربعاء مارس 30 2011, 13:55

مرحبا شباب و صبايا المنتدى حبيت قدم لكم تلخيص موجز و سريع لمسرحية مجموعة الوحوش الزجاجية للكاتب تنسي ويليامز اللي مطالبين بها هذه السنة .
طبعا التلخيص بالإنكليزي وانا قمت بترجمة الملخص . وبعتذر إذا كان فيه أخطاء بالترجمة.


The action of The Glass Menagerie takes place in the Wingfield family's apartment in St. Louis, 1937. The events of the play are framed by memory - Tom Wingfield is the play's narrator, and usually smokes and stands on the fire escape as he delivers his monologues. The narrator addresses us from the undated and eternal present, although at the play's first production (1944-5), Tom's constant indirect references to the violence of the Second World War would have been powerfully current.
تجري أحداث المسرحية في شقة عائلة وينجفلد في سانت لويس , أحداث المسرحية مصاغة بالذاكرة . توم وينجفلد هو راوي المسرحية , وعادة يدخن ويقف على سلم النجاة بينما يلقي خطابه . يخاطبنا الراوي من حاضر ابدي غير مؤرخ .
على الرغم من إن المسرحية أنتجت لأول مرة سنة 1944 فإن توم يشير بشكل متواصل غير مباشر إلى عنف الحرب العالمية الثانية .
The action of the play centers on Tom, his mother Amanda, and his sister Laura. In 1937 they live together in a small apartment in St. Louis. Their father abandoned them years earlier, and Tom is now the family's breadwinner. He works at the Continental Shoemakers warehouse during the day, but he disappears nightly "to the movies." Amanda is a loving mother, but her meddling and nagging are hard to live with for Tom, who is a grown man and who earns the wages that support the entire family. Laura is a frightened and terribly shy girl, She is also slightly lame in one leg, and she seldom leaves the apartment of her own volition. She busies herself caring for her "glass menagerie," a collection of delicate little glass animals.
تركز الأحداث على توم , وأمه أماندا و أخته لورا . في 1937 عاشوا معا في شقة صغيرة في سانت لويس . تركهم والدهم منذ سنوات عدة . و توم الآن معيل العائلة . يعمل توم في مستودع للأحذية أثناء النهار ولكنه يختفي ليلا إلى السينما . أماندا أم عطوفة ولكن تطفلها و تذمرها يجعلان من الصعب على توم إن يعيش معها والذي هو شاب ناضج يكسب أجره لدعم العائلة .
لورا فتاة خجولة وهي عرجاء. و نادرا ما تغادر الشقة بإرادتها . تشغل نفسها في العناية بوحوشها الزجاجية والتي هي مجموعة من حيوانات زجاجية ناعمة .

_________________

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
http://ibneldelta.ahlamontada.com
محمد طاهر
Admin
Admin
avatar

الابراج : الميزان
عدد المساهمات : 1936
تاريخ الميلاد : 25/09/1977
تاريخ التسجيل : 04/12/2009
العمر : 40
الموقع : http://ibneldelta.ahlamontada.com
العمل/الترفيه : الانترنت

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: مسرحيه The Glass Menagerie   الأربعاء مارس 30 2011, 13:56

belle and the darling of her small town's social scene. She enrolled Laura in classes at Rubicam's Business College, hoping that a career in business would make Laura self-sufficient. She discovers that Laura stopped attending class a long time ago, because the speed tests on the typewriter terrified her. After the fiasco at Rubicam's Amanda gives up on a business career for Laura and puts all her hopes into finding a husband for her.
تحلم أماندا دائمابالأيام الخوالي حين كانت شابة جنوبية حسناء وبالمشهد الساحر لبلدتها الاجتماعية الصغيرة . سجلت لورا في كلية روبيكام التجارية آملة إن تجعل مهنة التجارة من لورا مكتفية ذاتيا .
تكتشف أماندا أن لورا قد توقفت عن الحضور منذ وقت طويل , وذلك لأن اختبارات السرعة على الآلة الكاتبة أرهبها .
بعد الفشل والإخفاق في روبيكام تتخلى أماندا بالبحث مهنة العمل للورا و تضع كل آمالها في إيجاد زوج لها .
Amanda's relationship with Tom is difficult. Tom longs to be free - like his father - to abandon Amanda and Laura and set off into the world. He has stayed because of his responsibility for them, but his mother's nagging and his frail sister's idiosyncrasies make the apartment a depressing and oppressive place. Tom also hates his job. His only escape comes from his frequent visits to the movies, but his nightly disappearances anger and baffle Amanda. He fights with Amanda all the time, and the situation at home grows more unbearable.
علاقة أماندا مع توم صعبة . يتوق توم لان يكون حرا مثل والده , و ترك أماندا ولورا والسفر حول العالم . ولكنه بقي بسبب مسؤوليته تجاههم . ولكن إزعاج أمه و مرض أخته يجعل من الشقة مكانا كئيبا و مظلما .
يكره توم عمله . و هروبه الوحيد يأتي من زياراته المتكررة للسينما . ولكن اختفاءه ليلا يغضب و يحير أماندا . طوال الوقت يتعارك توم واماندا , وهذا الوضع في البيت يزداد سوءا وينمو بشكل لا يطاق .

_________________

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
http://ibneldelta.ahlamontada.com
محمد طاهر
Admin
Admin
avatar

الابراج : الميزان
عدد المساهمات : 1936
تاريخ الميلاد : 25/09/1977
تاريخ التسجيل : 04/12/2009
العمر : 40
الموقع : http://ibneldelta.ahlamontada.com
العمل/الترفيه : الانترنت

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: مسرحيه The Glass Menagerie   الأربعاء مارس 30 2011, 13:56

الوضع في البيت يزداد سوءا وينمو بشكل لا يطاق .
Amanda, sensing that Tom wants to leave, tries to make a deal with him. If Tom and Amanda can find a husband for Laura, a man who can take care of her, then Tom will be free of his responsibility to them. Amanda asks Tom to bring home gentlemen callers to meet Laura. Tom brings home Jim O'Connor, a fellow employee at the warehouse. He is an outgoing and enthusiastic man on whom Laura had a terrible crush in high school. Jim chats with Laura, growing increasingly flirtatious, until he finally kisses her. Then he admits that he has a fiancé and cannot call again. For fragile Laura, the news is devastating.
تشعر أماندا أن توم يريد أن يغادر , لذا تعقد معه اتفاقية . أذا وجد توم واماندا زوجا يعتني ب لورا عندها توم سيكون خالي من مسؤوليته تجاههم . تطلب أماندا من توم أن يحضر للمنزل خطابين لمقابلة لورا . توم أحضر معه للمنزل زميله العامل في المستودع جيم اوكونور وهو شخص ودود و متحمس والذي كانت لورا معجبة به في المدرسة العليا . جيم يتحدث مع لورا ويغازلها حتى يقبلها أخيرا . ومن ثم يعترف بإن لديه خطيبة ولا يمكنه التواصل معها . و بما أن لورا رقيقة فإن هذه الأنباء تدمرها .
Amanda is furious, and after Jim leaves she accuses Tom of playing a cruel joke on them. Amanda and Tom have one final fight, and not long afterward Tom leaves for good. In his closing monologue, he admits that he cannot escape the memory of his sister. Though he abandoned her years ago, Laura still haunts him.
أماندا غاضبة , وبعد إن يغادر جيم تتهم توم بأنه يمزح مزحة قاسية عليهم . عراك أخير فيما بينهم , ولفترة ليست بطويلة يتوجه توم لعمله . في خطابه الأخير يعترف توم بأنه لا يستطيع الهروب من ذكريات أخته . لذلك تركها سنوات وما زالت تراوده .

_________________

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
http://ibneldelta.ahlamontada.com
محمد طاهر
Admin
Admin
avatar

الابراج : الميزان
عدد المساهمات : 1936
تاريخ الميلاد : 25/09/1977
تاريخ التسجيل : 04/12/2009
العمر : 40
الموقع : http://ibneldelta.ahlamontada.com
العمل/الترفيه : الانترنت

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: مسرحيه The Glass Menagerie   الأربعاء مارس 30 2011, 13:57


Amanda wingfield : once a southern belle who was the darling of her small town's social scene, Amanda is an abandoned wife and single mother living in a small apartment in st.louis . she dreams of her past and of her daughter's future , but seems unwilling to recognize certain harsh realities of the present. She is a loving mother, but her demands can make life difficult for tom and Laura .
اماندا وينجفلد : تلك الحسناء الجنوبية التي كانت فاتنة و ساحرة بلدتها الاجتماعية الصغيرة , أماندا ام وحيدة قد هجرها زوجها وتعيش في شقة صغيرة في شارع لويس . تحلم اماندا بماضيها و بمستقبل ابنتها , لكن يبدو انها غير قادرة على إدراك واقع الحاضر المؤلم . اماندا أم عطوفة ولكن مطالبها وتدخلاتها تجعل من الحياة صعبة لتوم ولورا .
Laura wingfield : crippled from childhood. Laura is painfully shy, unable to face the world outside of the tiny wingfield apartment. She spends her time polishing her collection of tiny glass animals , her " glass menagerie ." her presence is almost ghostly , and her inability to connect with others outside of her family makes her dependent on tom and Amanda . Jim's nickname for her , " blue roses " suggests both her odd beauty and her isolation , as a blue roses exist nowhere in the real world. She is in many ways like Rose, Tennessee Williams real life sister .
لورا وينجفلد : شلت من الطفولة . وهي خجولة للغاية , غير قادرة على مواجهة العالم خارج شقة وينجفلد الصغيرة . تمضي لورا وقتها بتلميع مجموعتها من الحيوانات الزجاجية الصغيرة ( مجموعة الوحوش الزجاجية ) . تواجدها شبحي طيفي , وعدم قدرتها على التواصل مع الأخرين خارج عائلتها تجعلها معتمدة على توم واماندا . لقبها جيم ب ( الورود الزرقاء ) و هذا اللقب يوحي بعزلتها وجمالها المنعزل الغريب.
الورد الأزرق لايوجد في الحياة الواقعية . اماندا تشبه اخت الكاتب تنسي ويليامز (( روز )) بطرق عديدة .
Tom wingfield : tom is an aspiring poet who works in the continental shoemakers warehouse. He is the narrator of the play: the action of the play is framed by tom's memory . tom loves his mother and sister, but he feels trapped at home. They are dependent on his wages, and as long as he stays with them he feels he can never have a life of his own. Nightly, he disappears to go to the movies .
توم وينجفلد : شاعر طموح يعمل في مستودع أوربي لصناعة الأحذية . توم هو راوي المسرحية وهذه المسرحية مصاغة من ذاكرة توم . يحب توم أمه و أخته . لكنه يشعر أنه محبوس في البيت . هم يعتمدون على أجره , و طالما بقي معهم يشعر أنه لا يستطيع امتلاك حياته الخاصة . يختفي توم ليلا في الذهاب إلى السينما .
Jim O'Connor : the long awaited gentleman caller. He is outgoing, enthusiastic, and believes in self – improvement. He kisses Laura and raises her hopes before revealing to her that he is engaged. Tom describes him as a person more connected to the real world than any of the other characters are , but Jim is also a symbol for the " expected something that we live for " .
جيم اوكونور : ذلك الشخص المنتظر طويلا . جيم ودود وحماسي يؤمن بالتحسين النفسي . يقبل لورا ويرفع من آمالها قبل أن يكشف لها أنه خاطب . يصفه توم بأنه من أكثر الأشخاص اتصالا بالواقع . ولكن يعد جيم رمزا ل (( الشيء المترقب الذي نعيش من أجله ))

_________________

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
http://ibneldelta.ahlamontada.com
محمد طاهر
Admin
Admin
avatar

الابراج : الميزان
عدد المساهمات : 1936
تاريخ الميلاد : 25/09/1977
تاريخ التسجيل : 04/12/2009
العمر : 40
الموقع : http://ibneldelta.ahlamontada.com
العمل/الترفيه : الانترنت

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: مسرحيه The Glass Menagerie   الأربعاء مارس 30 2011, 13:58


Scenes One & Two

Summary: Scene One
The Wingfield apartment faces an alley in a lower-middle-class St. Louis tenement. There is a fire escape with a landing and a screen on which words or images periodically appear. Tom Wingfield steps onstage dressed as a merchant sailor and speaks directly to the audience. According to the stage directions, Tom “takes whatever license with dramatic convention is convenient to his purposes.” He explains the social and historical background of the play: the time is the late 1930s, when the American working classes are still reeling from the effects of the Great Depression. The civil war in Spain has just led to a massacre of civilians at Guernica. Tom also describes his role in the play and describes the other characters. One character, Tom’s father, does not appear onstage: he abandoned the family years ago and, except for a terse postcard from Mexico, has not been heard from since. However, a picture of him hangs in the living room.
Tom enters the apartment’s dining room, where Amanda, his mother, and Laura, his sister, are eating. Amanda calls Tom to the dinner table and, once he sits down, repeatedly tells him to chew his food. Laura rises to fetch something, but Amanda insists that she sit down and keep herself fresh for gentlemen callers. Amanda then launches into what is clearly an oft-recited account of the Sunday afternoon when she entertained seventeen gentlemen callers in her home in Blue Mountain, Mississippi. At Laura’s urging, Tom listens attentively and asks his mother what appear to be habitual questions. Oblivious to his condescending tone, Amanda catalogues the men and their subsequent fates, how much money they left their widows, and how one suitor died carrying her picture.
Laura explains that no gentlemen callers come for her, since she is not as popular as her mother once was. Tom groans. Laura tells Tom that their mother is afraid that Laura will end up an old maid. The lights dim as what the stage directions term “the ‘Glass Menagerie’ music” plays.
Summary: Scene Two
An image of blue roses appears on the screen as the scene begins. Laura is polishing her collection of glass figurines as Amanda, with a stricken face, walks up the steps outside. When Laura hears Amanda, she hides her ornaments and pretends to be studying a diagram of a keyboard. Amanda tears up the keyboard diagram and explains that she stopped by Rubicam’s Business College, where Laura is supposedly enrolled. A teacher there informed her that Laura has not come to class since the first few days, when she suffered from terrible nervousness and became physically ill. Laura admits that she has been skipping class and explains that she has spent her days walking along the streets of winter, going to the zoo, and occasionally watching movies.
Amanda wonders what will become of the family now that Laura’s prospects of a business career are ruined. She tells Laura that the only alternative is for Laura to get married. Amanda asks her if she has ever liked a boy. Laura tells her that, in high school, she had a crush on a boy named Jim, the school hero, who sat near her in the chorus. Laura tells her mother that once she told Jim that she had been away from school due to an attack of pleurosis. Because he misheard the name of the disease, he began calling her “Blue Roses.” Laura notes that at graduation time he was engaged, and she speculates that he must be married by now. Amanda declares that Laura will nonetheless end up married to someone nice. Laura reminds her mother, apologetically, that she is “crippled”—that one of her legs is shorter than the other. Amanda insists that her daughter never use that word and tells her that she must cultivate charm.
Analysis: Scenes One & Two
With Tom’s direct address to the audience, describing the play and the other characters, the play acknowledges its status as a work of art and admits that it does not represent reality. Tom’s address also identifies the bias inherent in the portrayal of events that have already occurred: everything the audience sees will be filtered through Tom’s memory and be subject to all of its guesswork, colorings, and subconscious distortions. The idea of a play with an involved narrator is not a new one. For instance, the Chorus in classical tragedy frequently plays a role much like Tom’s, commenting on the actions as they occur. But these Choruses are seldom composed of characters who also play a part in the action. The presence of a character who both narrates and participates in the play is quite unusual, and Tom’s dual role creates certain conflicts in his characterization. As narrator, Tom recounts and comments on the action from an unspecified date in the future and, as such, has acquired a certain emotional distance from the action. As a character, however, Tom is emotionally and physically involved in the action. Thus, Tom first appears as a cool, objective narrator who earns the audience’s trust, but within minutes, he changes into an irritable young man embroiled in a petty argument with his mother over how he chews his food. As a consequence, the audience is never quite sure how to react to Tom—whether to take his opinions as the solid pronouncements of a narrator or the self-centered perspective of just another character.
Williams’s production notes and stage directions emphasize his innovative theatrical vision. He felt that realism, which aimed to present life as it was without idealizing it, had outlived its usefulness. It offered, as Tom puts it, “illusion that has the appearance of truth.” Williams sought the opposite in The Glass Menagerie: truth disguised as illusion. To accomplish this reversal of realism, the play employs elaborate visual and audio effects and expressionistic sets that emphasize symbolic meaning at the expense of realism. To underscore the illusions of the play, Tom makes a point of acknowledging these devices during his monologues as narrator.
Among the most striking effects in the play is the screen on which words or images that relate to the onstage action appear. The impression that this device creates on paper is sometimes confusing. In fact, the director of the original Broadway production of The Glass Menagerie chose to eliminate the screen from the performance. Sometimes the screen is used to emphasize the importance of something referred to by the characters, as when an image of blue roses appears in Scene Two as Laura recounts Jim’s nickname for her. Sometimes it refers to something from a character’s past or fantasy, as when Jim appears as a high school hero in the same scene, and sometimes it provides what seems like commentary from a witty outsider, as with “Ou sont les neiges d’antan?” in Scene One (“Ou sont les neiges . . .” is the title of a poem in praise of beautiful women by the fifteenth-century French poet François Villon). At times, the very obviousness of the symbols or themes that the screen emphasizes gives an ironic tone to the device. Like Tom’s speeches, it reminds the audience of the importance of literary gimmicks and tricks in the creation of what the audience is seeing.
Scene Three

Summary
The words “After the fiasco—” appear on the screen as the scene opens. Tom stands on the fire escape landing and addresses the audience. He explains that in the wake of what Tom refers to as the “fiasco” with Laura’s college attendance, Amanda has become obsessed with procuring a gentleman caller for Laura. The image of a young man at the house with flowers appears on the screen. Tom says that in order to make a little extra money and thereby increase the family’s ability to entertain suitors, Amanda runs a telephone subscription campaign for a magazine called The Homemaker’s Companion.
The cover of a glamour magazine appears on the screen, and Amanda enters with a telephone. She makes a cheerful, elaborate, unsuccessful sales pitch to an acquaintance on the telephone, and then the lights dim. When they come up again, Tom and Amanda are engaged in a loud argument while Laura looks on desperately. Tom is enraged because his mother affords him no privacy and, furthermore, has returned the D. H. Lawrence novel he was reading to the library. She states that she will not permit that kind of “filth” in her house. Tom points out that he pays the rent and attempts to end the conversation by leaving the apartment. Amanda insists that Tom hear her out. She attributes his surly attitude to the fact that he spends every night out—doing something shameful, in her opinion—though he insists that he spends his nights at the movies. Amanda asserts that, by coming home late and depriving himself of sleep, he is endangering his job and, therefore, the family’s security. Tom responds with a fierce outburst. He expresses his hatred for the factory, and he claims to envy the dead whenever he hears Amanda’s daily call of “Rise and Shine!” He points out how he goes to work each day nonetheless and brings home the pay, how he has put aside all his dreams, and, if he truly were as selfish as Amanda claims, how he would have left long ago, just like his father.
Tom makes a move toward the door. Amanda demands to know where he is going. When she does not accept his response that he is going to the movies, he declares sarcastically that she is right and that he spends his nights at the lairs of criminals, opium houses, and casinos. He concludes his speech by calling Amanda an “ugly—babbling old—witch” and then grabs his coat. The coat resists his clumsy attempts to put it on, so he throws it to the other side of the room, where it hits Laura’s glass menagerie, her collection of glass animal figurines. Glass breaks, and Laura utters a cry and turns away. The words “The Glass Menagerie” appear on the screen. Barely noticing the broken menagerie, Amanda declares she will not speak to Tom until she receives an apology. Tom bends down to pick up the glass and glances at Laura as if he would like to say something but says nothing. The “Glass Menagerie” music plays as the scene ends.
Analysis
By the end of Scene Three, Williams has established the personalities of each of the three Wingfields and the conflicts that engage them. Tom’s frustration with his job and home life, Amanda’s nostalgia for her past and demands for the family’s future, and Laura’s social and physical handicaps all emerge quickly through the dialogue. There is almost no down time in the play because every scene is dominated by ******ened emotions like anger and disillusionment or by major issues in the characters’ lives, such as Laura’s marriage prospects. The play always presents characters with measured ambiguity: each of them is deeply flawed, yet none is completely unsympathetic.
Amanda comes the closest to being a genuine antagonist. Her constant nagging suffocates and wounds her children, and her pettiness decreases her credibility in the eyes of her children and the audience. For example, her complaints about Tom’s nighttime excursions may be legitimate, but they get lost in the reproaches she heaps upon him for his eating habits. Yet the hardship of her life as a single mother inspires sympathy. Her magazine subscription campaign is humiliating work, but it is a sacrifice and indignity that she is willing to undergo out of concern for her daughter’s eventual happiness.
Mr. Wingfield’s photograph hangs over everything that occurs onstage, indicating that, though the family has not seen him for years, he still plays a crucial role in their lives. Tom has been forced to adopt his absent father’s role of breadwinner, and he is both tantalized and haunted by the idea that he might eventually adopt his father’s role as deserter. Tom voices this possibility explicitly at the end of Scene Three, and we suspect that this occasion is not the first time he has done so. In fact, Amanda’s apparently intrusive and unjustified concern with what her son reads and where he goes at night may stem from her awareness of this possibility. Her husband left her, we learn, because he “fell in love with long distances.” With that in mind, it seems perfectly reasonable that she should be suspicious whenever Tom strays, mentally or physically, into any world outside their cramped apartment. The landing on the fire escape, where Tom is seen standing in Scene Three, ominously represents just what its name suggests: a route of escape from the “slow and implacable fires of human desperation” that burn steadily in the Wingfield household.
Close-knit, dysfunctional families are among Williams’s favorite subjects, and the subject matter of The Glass Menagerie is closely connected to Williams’s own life. Williams (whose real name was Thomas) spent a number of difficult years in St. Louis with his family, and for some of that time, he worked in a shoe factory. As a child, he was very close to his older sister, Rose, who, like Laura, was delicate and absorbed in fantasy. Rose even kept a collection of glass animals. As an adult, Rose was diagnosed with schizophrenia and eventually underwent a lobotomy in 1937. Williams never forgave his mother, a domineering former Southern belle like Amanda, for ordering the procedure. The use of “Blue Roses” as a nickname and symbol for Laura in her happiest moments (which quickly turn painful) is an explicit tribute to Rose Williams.
Scene Four

Summary
A bell tolls five times as Tom returns home. He has been drinking. After painstakingly extracting his key from a jumble of cast-off items in his pockets, he drops it into a crack on the fire-escape landing. Laura hears him fumbling about and opens the door. He tells her that he has been at the movies for most of the night and also to a magic show, in which the magician changed water to wine to beer to whiskey. Tom then gives Laura a rainbow-colored scarf, which he says the magician gave to him. He describes how the magician allowed himself to be nailed into a coffin and escaped without removing a nail. Tom remarks wryly that the same trick could come in handy for him but wonders how one could possibly get out of a coffin without removing a single nail. Mr. Wingfield’s photograph lights up, presenting an example of someone who has apparently performed such a feat. The lights dim.
At six in the morning, Amanda calls out her habitual “Rise and Shine!” This time, though, she tells Laura to pass the message on to Tom because Amanda refuses to talk to Tom until he apologizes. Laura gets Tom out of bed and implores him to apologize to their mother. He remains reluctant. Amanda then sends Laura out to buy groceries on credit. On the way down the fire escape, Laura slips and falls but is not hurt. Several moments of silence pass in the dining room before Tom rises from the table and apologizes. Amanda nearly breaks into tears, and Tom speaks gently to her. She speaks of her pride in her children and begs Tom to promise her that he will never be a drunkard. She then turns the discussion to Laura as the “Glass Menagerie” music begins to play. Amanda has caught Laura crying because Laura thinks that Tom is not happy living with them and that he goes out every night to escape the apartment. Amanda claims to understand that Tom has greater ambitions than the warehouse, but she also expresses her worry at seeing him stay out late, just as his father, a heavy drinker, used to do. She questions Tom again about where he goes at night, and Tom says that he goes to the movies for adventure, which, he laments, is so absent from his career and life in general. At the mention of the word “adventure,” a sailing vessel appears on the screen. “Man is by instinct a lover, a hunter, a fighter,” Tom says, and he points out that the warehouse does not offer him the chance to be any of those things. Amanda does not want to hear about instinct. She considers it the function of animals and not a concern of “Christian adults.”
Tom is impatient to get to work, but Amanda holds him back to talk about her worry over Laura’s future. Amanda has tried to integrate Laura into the rest of the world by enrolling her in business college and taking her to Young People’s League meetings at church, but nothing has worked. Laura is unable to speak to people outside her family and spends all her time with old records and her glass menagerie. Amanda tells Tom that she knows that he has gotten a letter from the merchant marine and is itching to leave, but she asks him to wait until Laura has someone to take care of her. She then asks him to find some decent man at the warehouse and bring him home to meet Laura. Heading down the fire escape, Tom reluctantly agrees. Amanda makes another call for the magazine subscription drive, and then the lights fade.
Analysis
For the first production of The Glass Menagerie, the composer Paul Bowles wrote a musical theme entitled “The Glass Menagerie.” This music plays when Amanda discusses Laura at the breakfast table with Tom and at other crucial moments involving Laura. The title and timing of the music equate Laura with her glass animals. Like the objects that she loves so well, Laura is incredibly delicate (a typing drill is enough to make her physically ill) and oddly fanciful. Somehow, the fights and struggles that shape Amanda’s and Tom’s lives have not hardened Laura. Amanda and Tom argue constantly about their respective responsibilities to the family, but Laura never joins in. Interestingly, Laura does not participate in supporting the family and, though Amanda is upset when Laura deceives her about the business college, neither Tom nor Amanda resents Laura’s dependence in any way. Her physical and resultant emotional disabilities seem to excuse her from any practical obligation to the household.
Though she does nothing to hold the family together financially, Laura holds it together emotionally. Amanda hits on this truth when she reminds Tom that he cannot leave as long as Laura depends on him. Both Tom and Amanda are capable of working to support themselves, and, without the childlike Laura, this family of three adults would almost certainly dissolve. In addition, Laura’s role as peacemaker proves crucial to ending the standoff between Tom and Amanda. Laura valiantly tries to douse the “slow and implacable fires” of her family’s unhappiness—to play firefighter, in a sense. Interestingly, she trips on the fire escape when she leaves the apartment. This event contributes to the reconciliation between Tom and Amanda, who are united in their concern for Laura, and it also draws attention to the fact that, for Laura, escape from the emotional fires of her family is impossible. Thus, she has no choice but to do everything she can to extinguish them.
The closeness and warmth of Tom’s relationship with Laura becomes evident when Tom comes home drunk at the beginning of Scene Four. In general, when Amanda is around, she tends to dominate the conversation, and the siblings can exchange very few words exclusive to the two of them. Here, though, they are alone. Laura’s love and concern for Tom are great enough to prompt her to wake up at five in the morning to see if he has come home. Tom uses his account of the magic show to share his most intimate experiences and thoughts with Laura. He subtly confesses to her about his drinking when he talks about the magician turning water to whiskey. Then, the coffin anecdote reveals both Tom’s sense of morbid confinement in his job and family life and his impossible dreams of escaping the family “without removing one nail”—that is, without destroying it. A number of critics have suggested that Tom feels an incestuous romantic attachment to Laura. This theory is supported by the subtly presented intensity of the relationship between these two young adults, both of whom are, in their different ways, incapable of establishing complete lives outside their family.
The imagery in Tom’s speech about the magic show contains several layers of symbolic meaning. The coffin trick, with its suggestions of rising from the dead, is a reference to Christian resurrection. Christian themes are also suggested by Tom’s tendency, when he reaches the limits of his patience with Amanda’s reproaches, to see himself as a martyr committing a supreme sacrifice for the family’s good. In addition, the rainbow-colored scarf that Tom brings home and gives to Laura reminds the audience of the rainbow of colors refracted by her glass animals. On a social and historical front, the coffin is representative of the condition of the American lower middle classes, whom Williams describes, in the stage directions, as a “fundamentally enslaved” sector of America.
Scene Five

Summary
The screen reads “Annunciation.” Some time has passed since the last scene, and it is now the spring of 1937. Amanda and Laura clear the table after dinner. Amanda nags Tom about his disheveled appearance and his smoking habits. Tom steps onto the fire-escape landing and addresses the audience, describing what he remembers about the area where he grew up. There was a dance hall across the alley, he tells us, from which music emanated on spring evenings. Rainbow refractions from the hall’s glass ball were visible through the Wingfields’ ******s, and young couples kissed in the alley. Tom says that the way youth entertained themselves at the dance hall was a natural reaction to lives that, like his own, lacked “any change or adventure.” He notes, however, that his peers would soon be offered all the adventure they wanted as America prepared to enter World War II.
Amanda joins Tom on the landing. They speak more gently than before, and each makes a wish on the moon. Tom refuses to tell what his wish is, and Amanda says that she wishes for the success and happiness of her children. Tom announces that there will be a gentleman caller: he has asked a nice young man from the warehouse to dinner. Amanda is thrilled, and Tom reveals that the caller will be coming the next day. This information agitates Amanda, who is overwhelmed by all the preparations that will need to be made before then. Tom tells her not to make a fuss, but he cannot stem the tide of her excitement. As she leads Tom back inside, Amanda frets about the linen, the silver, new curtains, chintz covers, and a new floor lamp, all the while despairing the lack of time to repaper the walls.
Amanda proceeds to brush Tom’s hair while interrogating him about the young gentleman caller. Her first concern is that he not be a drunkard. Tom thinks she is being a bit hasty in assuming that Laura will marry the visitor. Amanda continues to press him for information and learns that the caller, who is named Jim O’Connor, is a shipping clerk at the warehouse. Tom reveals that both sides of Jim’s family are Irish and that Jim makes eighty-five dollars a month. Jim is neither ugly nor too good-looking, and he goes to night school to study radio engineering and public speaking and is a proponent of self-improvement. Amanda is pleased by what she hears, particularly about his ambition. Tom warns her that Jim does not know that he has been invited specifically to meet Laura, stating that he offered Jim only a simple, unqualified invitation to dinner. This news does not matter to Amanda, who is sure that Laura will dazzle Jim. Tom asks her not to expect too much of Laura. He reminds Amanda that Laura is crippled, socially odd, and lives in a fantasy world. To outsiders who do not love her as family, Tom insists, Laura must seem peculiar. Amanda begs him not to use words like “crippled” and “peculiar” and asserts that Laura is strange in a good way.
Tom gets up to leave. Amanda demands to know where he is going. He replies that he is going to the movies and leaves despite his mother’s objections. Amanda is troubled, but her excitement quickly returns. She calls Laura out onto the landing and tells her to make a wish on the moon. Laura does not know what she should wish for. Amanda, overcome with emotion, tells her to wish for happiness and good fortune.
Analysis
Although Amanda seems to do everything she can to make her children happy, many of her expectations of what will make them happy are actually egocentric—that is, they are based on Amanda’s own definition of happiness. Amanda claims to value her children’s well-being above her own, and in some ways her behavior supports that claim. She does, for example, subject herself to the pedestrian work of subscription-selling in order to help Laura find a husband. Yet Amanda’s nagging of Tom and her refusal to recognize Laura’s flaws indicate her deep-rooted selfishness. She wants the best for Tom and Laura, but her concept of the best has far more to do with her own values than with her children’s interests and dreams. Tom wants intellectual stimulation and a literary life, and Amanda refuses to admit that these may provide as valid a vision of happiness as financial stability. Gentleman callers hold no interest for Laura, but they hold great interest for Amanda, who refuses to accept that her daughter is not identical to her in this regard.
There is much to condemn in Amanda’s selfishness. However, the trajectory of her life also offers much to pity. Amanda simply cannot accept her transition from pampered Southern belle to struggling single mother. Some of her richest dialogue occurs when the genteel manners of her past come to the surface—when she calls the moon a “little silver slipper” or bursts out with a string of Southern endearments in her subscription-drive phone calls. Such elegant turns of phrase seem tragically out of place in a St. Louis tenement.
The figure of the fallen Southern belle is based loosely on Williams’s own mother, who grew up in a prominent Mississippi family and suffered reversals of fortune in her adulthood. This figuration remains one of the best-known trademarks of Williams’s plays—Blanche DuBois in A Streetcar Named Desire is perhaps the most famous representative of this type. The social and historical circumstances surrounding characters like Amanda point to some of the broader concerns of The Glass Menagerie. In the decades after the Civil War, many once-distinguished Southern families saw their economic fortunes decline. Daughters of these families, like Amanda, traditionally were raised to take pride in their social status. In a rapidly industrializing and modernizing America, however, that status was worth less and less. New money was seen as far more desirable than old but penniless family grandeur. The promise of Amanda’s past remains unfulfilled and always will remain so, but she refuses to accept this fact and convinces herself, wrongly, that Laura can still live the life that she expected for herself. At the end of the play, Amanda chides Tom for being a “dreamer.” It is clear, however, that the Wingfield children’s inability to deal with reality is inherited directly from their mother.
In Scene Five, Amanda’s far-fetched dreams for Laura appear to be within reach. The screen legend at the beginning of the scene is “Annunciation”—a word that, besides simply meaning “announcement,” also refers to the Catholic celebration of God’s announcement to the Virgin Mary that she is pregnant with Jesus Christ. Jim, then, may be seen as a savior—for Laura and for the entire family. Furthermore, Amanda’s description of the moon as a “little silver slipper” also calls to mind the Cinderella fairy tale, which Williams considered an important story. In one version of this tale, a handsome young prince rescues a maiden from a lifetime of domestic drudgery, and a glass slipper is crucial to cementing the match. Amanda’s hopes for Jim’s visit are high, and clues such as the slipper suggest that they may be correctly so. Soon, though, Williams’s references to the birth of a savior and of fairy-tale romance are revealed as ironic omens of tragedy.
Scene Six

Summary
Tom leans against the rail of the fire-escape landing, smoking, as the lights come up. He addresses the audience, recollecting the background of the gentleman caller. In high school, Jim O’Connor was a star in everything he did—an athlete, a singer, a debater, the leader of his class—and everyone was certain that he would go far. Yet things did not turn out according to expectations. Six years out of high school, Jim was working a job that was hardly better than Tom’s. Tom remembers that he and Jim were on friendly terms. As the only one at the warehouse who knew about Jim’s past glories, Tom was useful to Jim. Jim called Tom “Shakespeare” because of his habit of writing poems in the warehouse bathroom when work was slow.
Tom’s soliloquy ends, and the lights come up on a living room transformed by Amanda’s efforts over the past twenty-four hours. Amanda adjusts Laura’s new dress. Laura is nervous and uncomfortable with all the fuss that is being made, but Amanda assures her that it is only right for a girl to aim to trap a man with her beauty. When Laura is ready, Amanda goes to dress herself and then makes a grand entrance wearing a dress from her youth. She recalls wearing that same dress to a cotillion (a formal ball, often for debutantes) in Mississippi, to the Governor’s Ball, and to receive her gentlemen callers. Finally, her train of memories leads her to recollections of Mr. Wingfield.
Amanda mentions Jim’s name, and Laura realizes that the visitor is the same young man on whom she had a crush in high school. She panics, claiming that she will not be able to eat at the same table with him. Amanda dismisses Laura’s terror and busies herself in the kitchen making salmon for dinner. When the doorbell rings, Amanda calls for Laura to get it, but Laura desperately begs her mother to open it instead. When Amanda refuses, Laura at last opens the door, awkwardly greets Jim, and then retreats to the record player. Tom explains to Jim that she is extremely shy, and Jim remarks, “It’s unusual to meet a shy girls nowadays.”
Jim and Tom talk while the women are elsewhere. Jim encourages Tom to join him in the public speaking course he is taking. Jim is sure that he and Tom were both meant for executive jobs and that “social poise” is the only determinant of success. However, Jim also warns Tom that, if Tom does not wake up, the boss will soon fire Tom at the warehouse. Tom says that his own plans have nothing to do with public speaking or executive positions and that he is planning a big change in his life. Jim, bewildered, asks what he means, and Tom explains vaguely that he is sick of living vicariously through the cinema. He is bored with “the movies” and wants “to move,” he says. Unbeknownst to Amanda, he has taken the money intended to pay for that month’s electric bill and used it to join the Union of Merchant Seamen. Tom announces rather proudly that he is taking after his father.
Amanda enters, talking gaily and laying on the Southern charm as she introduces herself to Jim. She praises Laura to him and, within minutes, gives him a general account of her numerous girlhood suitors and her failed marriage. Amanda sends Tom to fetch Laura for dinner, but Tom returns to say that Laura is feeling ill and does not want to eat. A storm begins outside. Amanda calls Laura herself, and Laura enters, stumbling and letting out a moan just as a clap of thunder explodes. Seeing that Laura is truly ill, Amanda tells her to rest on the sofa in the living room. Amanda, Jim, and Tom sit down at the table, where Amanda glances anxiously at Jim while Tom says grace. Laura, in the living room alone, struggles to contain a sob.
Analysis
Laura’s glasslike qualities become more explicit in Scene Six, where, according to the stage directions, she resembles “glass touched by light, given a momentary radiance.” She embodies the “momentary radiance” of glass more completely in Scene Seven. Here, however, it is the fragility of glass that is most evident in her character. Before now, we have merely heard about the panic that results from her shyness. In this scene, we witness it directly, as her reason breaks down in the face of the terror that Jim’s presence instills in her.
The straightforward, iron-willed Jim contrasts sharply with the elusive, delicate Laura. Jim is, as Tom says in Scene One, a representative from the “world of reality.” His entrance marks the first time in the play that the audience comes into contact with the outside world from which the Wingfields, in their various ways, are all hiding. As embodied by Jim, that world seems brash, bland, and almost vulgar. His confidence and good cheer never waver. He offers Tom, and later Laura, a steady stream of clichés about success, self-confidence, and progress. Whereas Laura’s life is built around glass, Jim plans to build his around the “social poise” that consists of knowing how to use words to influence people.
Jim is as different from the rest of the Wingfields as he is from Laura. Whereas Tom sees the warehouse as a coffin, Jim sees it as the starting point of his career. For Jim, it is the entrance to a field in which he will attain commercial success, the only kind of success that he can perceive. Amanda lives in a past riddled with traditions and gentility, while Jim looks only toward the future of science, technology, and business. Given these contrasts, one might expect Jim to be bewildered and disgusted by the Wingfields and to be repulsed by the claustrophobia and dysfunction of their household. Instead, he is generous with them. He is good-natured about Tom’s ambivalent performance at his job, and most important, he is charmed by Laura’s imagination and vulnerability. Given Jim’s philosophy of life and belief in the value of social grace, it is possible that his remarkable tolerance and understanding is not a result of genuine compassion but, rather, an expression of the belief that it is always in one’s best interest to try to get along with everyone.
While Jim’s presence emphasizes the alienation of the Wingfields from the rest of the world, it simultaneously lends a new dignity and comprehensibility to that alienation. Jim’s professed dreams present a nightmare vision of the impersonality of humanity—shallow, materialistic, and blindly, relentlessly upbeat. We are forced to consider the question of whether it is preferable to live in a world of Wingfields or a world of Jims. There is no easy answer to this question, but it seems possible that, for all their unhappiness, Amanda and Tom would choose the former because the Wingfields’ world is emotionally richer than Jim’s. Along these lines, it seems possible that the outside world has not so much rejected the Wingfields as they have rejected the outside world.
Scene Seven

Summary
A half hour later, dinner is winding down. Laura is still by herself on the living-room couch. The floor lamp gives her face an ethereal beauty. As the rain stops, the lights flicker and go out. Amanda lights candles and asks Jim to check the fuses, but of course, he finds nothing wrong with them. Amanda then asks Tom if he paid the electric bill. He admits that he did not, and she assumes that he simply forgot, as Jim’s good humor helps smooth over the potentially tense moment. Amanda sends Jim to the parlor with a candelabra and a little wine to keep Laura company while Amanda and Tom clean up.
In the living room, Jim takes a seat on the floor and persuades Laura to join him. He gives her a glass of wine. Tongue-tied at first, Laura soon relaxes in Jim’s engaging presence. He talks to her about the Century of Progress exhibition in Chicago and calls her an “old-fashioned” girl. She reminds him that they knew each other in high school. He has forgotten, but when she mentions the nickname he gave her, Blue Roses, he remembers. They reminisce about high school and Jim’s glories. Laura also remembers the discomfort and embarrassment she felt over the brace on her leg. Jim tells her that she was far too self-conscious and that every**** has problems. Laura persuades him to sign a program from a play he performed in during high school, which she has kept, and works up the nerve to ask him about the girl to whom he was supposedly engaged. He explains that he was never actually engaged and that the girl had announced the engagement out of wishful thinking.
In response to his question about what she has done since high school, Laura starts to tell Jim about her glass collection. He abruptly declares that she has an inferiority complex and that she “low-rates” herself. He says that he also suffered from this condition after his post–high school disappointment. He launches into his vision of his own future in television production. Laura listens attentively. He asks her about herself again, and she describes her collection of glass animals. She shows him her favorite: a unicorn. He points out lightly that unicorns are “extinct” in modern times.
Jim notices the music coming from the dance hall across the alley. Despite Laura’s initial protests, he leads her in a clumsy waltz around the room. Jim bumps into the table where the unicorn is resting, the unicorn falls, and its horn breaks off. Laura is unfazed, though, and she says that now the unicorn can just be a regular horse. Extremely apologetic, Jim tells her that she is different from anyone else he knows, that she is pretty, and that if she were his sister he would teach her to have some self-confidence and value her own uniqueness. He then says that someone ought to kiss her.
Jim kisses Laura on the lips. Dazed, Laura sinks down onto the sofa. He immediately begins chiding himself out loud for what he has done. As he sits next to her on the sofa, Jim confesses that he is involved with an Irish girl named Betty, and he tells her that his love for Betty has made a new man of him. Laura places the de-horned unicorn in his hand, telling him to think of it as a souvenir.
Amanda enters in high spirits, carrying *******ments. Jim quickly becomes awkward in her presence. She insists that he become a frequent caller from now on. He says he must leave now and explains that he has to pick up Betty at the train station—the two of them are to be married in June. Despite her disappointment, Amanda bids him farewell graciously. Jim cheerily takes his leave.
Amanda calls Tom in from the kitchen and accuses him of playing a joke on them. Tom insists that he had no idea that Jim was engaged and that he does not know much about anyone at the warehouse. He heads to the door, intending to spend another night at the movies. Amanda accuses him of being a “dreamer” and rails against his selfishness as he leaves. Tom returns her scolding. Amanda tells him that he might as well go not just to the movies but to the moon, for all that he cares about her and Laura. Tom leaves, slamming the door.
Tom delivers his passionate closing monologue from the fire-escape landing as Amanda inaudibly comforts Laura inside the apartment and then withdraws to her room. Tom explains that he was fired soon after from the warehouse for writing a poem on a shoebox lid and that he then left the family. He says that he has traveled for a long time, pursuing something he cannot identify. But he has found that he cannot leave Laura behind. No matter where he goes, some piece of glass or quality of light makes it seem as if his sister is at his side. In the living room, Laura blows the candles out as Tom bids her goodbye.
Analysis
As Scene Seven begins, Laura’s face is made beautiful by the new floor lamp and its lampshade of “rose-colored silk.” Williams marshals the force of metaphor through the accrued weight of symbols. The delicate light represents Laura, and the rose represents Laura, whom Jim used to call “Blue Roses.” The glass unicorn that Jim breaks accidentally is yet another symbol that points to Laura. Like the unicorn, Laura is an impossible oddity. Jim’s kindness and kiss bring her abruptly into the normal world by shattering the protective layer of glass that she has set up around herself, but this real world also involves heartbreak, which she suffers at Jim’s hands.
Though Jim is an emissary from a very different world, he also shares some fundamental qualities with the Wingfields, each of whom is somehow unable to connect to the world around him or her. Jim seems to be well integrated into the outside world, to accept its philosophy of life, and to have latched onto a number of things that keep him afloat: public speaking, radio engineering, and Betty. But his long-winded speeches to Laura reveal an insecurity that he is fighting with all his might. He has somehow strayed off the glorious path on which he seemed destined to travel in high school. Lacking an inherent sense of self-worth, he is scrambling to find something that will give him such a sense. Jim talks as if he is trying to convince himself as much as all the others that he has the self-confidence he needs to succeed.
Each character in The Glass Menagerie is trying to escape from reality in his or her own way: Laura retreats into her imagination and the static world of glass animals and old records, Amanda has the glorious days of her youth, and Jim has his dreams of an executive position. Only Tom has trouble finding a satisfactory route of escape. Movies are not a real way out, as he comes to realize. Even descending the steps of the fire escape and wandering like his rootless father does not provide him with any respite from his memories of Laura’s stunted life and crushed hopes. Yet, in one way, he has escaped. A frustrated poet no longer, he has created this play. Laura’s act of blowing out the candles at the play’s end signifies the snuffing of her hopes, but it may also mark Tom’s long-awaited release from her grip. He exhorts Laura to blow out her candles and then bids her what sounds like a final goodbye. The play itself is Tom’s way out, a cathartic attempt to purge his memory and free himself through the act of creation.
Even so, when one considers the trajectory of Tennessee William's life and writings, one senses a deep ambivalence in the play’s conclusion. The rose image continued to show up in William's writings long after The Glass Menagerie, and the ghosts haunting Williams would eventually lead him to drug addiction and a mental hospital. For Williams and his character Tom, art may be an attempt to erase all pain. But although William's world includes some survivors of deep pain and torment, they invariably bear ugly scars.

_________________

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
http://ibneldelta.ahlamontada.com
مسك الجنه
مشرفة
مشرفة


الابراج : السمك
عدد المساهمات : 1145
تاريخ الميلاد : 24/02/1990
تاريخ التسجيل : 10/01/2010
العمر : 27

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: مسرحيه The Glass Menagerie   السبت أبريل 02 2011, 10:14


_________________
فاني فاني فاني
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
مسك الجنه
مشرفة
مشرفة


الابراج : السمك
عدد المساهمات : 1145
تاريخ الميلاد : 24/02/1990
تاريخ التسجيل : 10/01/2010
العمر : 27

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: مسرحيه The Glass Menagerie   السبت أبريل 02 2011, 10:15


1- مسرحية ( تماثيل الوحوش الزجاجية)

( The Glass Menagerie


[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]

مسرحية درامية تذكارية يرويها أحد أبطالها ( توم ) ليحكي لنا عن أمه ( آماندا ) وأخته ( لورا) التي تشكلت شخصيتها من الزجاج الشفاف القابل للكسر في عالمها الإنعزالي البائس.. لكن ( جيم ) ينجح في رفع معنوياتها ومشاعرها إلى ذروة التوتر العاطفي الذي كانت محرومة منه..
وتصطدم المشاهد الرقيقة بالمواقف القاسية العنيفة لتؤكد جوهر اللعبة المسرحية
ء

_________________
فاني فاني فاني
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
مسك الجنه
مشرفة
مشرفة


الابراج : السمك
عدد المساهمات : 1145
تاريخ الميلاد : 24/02/1990
تاريخ التسجيل : 10/01/2010
العمر : 27

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: مسرحيه The Glass Menagerie   السبت أبريل 02 2011, 10:31


الإسم الأصلي للمسرحية مسرحية الحيوانات الزجاجية أو تماثيل الوحوش الزجاجية

تأليف: تنيسى وليامز

(1911- 1983) الكاتب المسرحي الأمريكي الشهير.

ومسرحية الحيوانات الزجاجية "The Glass Menagerie " عرضت لأول مرة في شيكاغو عام 1944 ونال عليها وليامز جائزة "دائرة نقاد نيويورك للدراما" في العام 1945؛ وكانت العرض الأول الناجح لوليامز؛ ولفتت الانتباه إليه ليصبح واحد من أكثر كتاب المسرح في الولايات المتحدة تقديرا.

منذ ذلك الحين قدمت المسرحية في الكثير من بقاع العالم وفي العديد من اللغات وعلى فترات مختلفة.

المسرحية التي كتبها وليامز مكتوبة في الأصل بسبعة مشاهد، وهي من مسرحيات الذاكرة وتمثل السمات الأساسية لمسرح تينسي وليامز، والتي يسترجع فيها جزءا من حياته وذاكرته في فترة الكساد العظيم الذي عاشته أمريكا ومن خلفها العالم في ذلك الوقت.

وترتكز في حدثها على التفاعل الحواري الذي يقوم بين الشخصيات الثلاث الرئيسة وفق رؤى متباينة ومختلفة في التعامل مع الواقع المعاش ورؤية وأفكار كل شخصية في محاولتها الخروج من الأزمة التي تعصف بالأسرة كتمثيل للأسرة الأمريكية في ذلك الوقت، تلك المحاولات التي تقودهم الى وضع يشبه الأحلام.. في مواجهة واقع كل منهم.

فالابن "توم" العامل في مصنع للأحذية والذي يبدو منقسما بين أحلامه الذاتية وبين مطلب إعالة عائلته، التي تقودها الأم "أماندا" في ظل غياب الأب في المسرحية؛ يظل متأففاً من تمسك أمه بالصورة المثالية التي رسمتها لحياتهم،

وكذلك مختلفا عن أخته "لورا" المسالمة (العرجاء) والتي تنتظر عريساً لم يأت، وتعيش في هدوء مسالم وعزلة في علاقتها مع العالم ومع الأسرة أيضا، وتكتفي بهوايتها الغريبة، التي هي اللعب مع الحيوانات الزجاجية، عبر انسحاب واضح من الواقع، بانتظار واقعة قد تحدث لتبدل حياتها؛ والتي يُهيئ للجميع أنها اقتربت المشهد الأخير من المسرحية، إذ يأتي "جيم" العريس المحتمل لـ "لورا"، ليجعل حياة الأسرة أكثر تسارعاً، بعد أن مضت الأحداث باعتيادية شديدة وإيقاع هادئ...


ويعتبر نقاد مسرحيون أن مسرحية الحيوانات الزجاجية أحد أهم المسرحيات في القرن الماضي وتركز على المآسي الشخصية لأبطالها وحيواتهم المتنازعة الرؤى والأحلام، وعلى العلاقات الإنسانية الهشة والمتفاوتة في ترابطها.

وقد أراد من خلالها وليامز استعادة همومه الشخصية التي رافقته في سنوات البطالة والكساد معانيا من غياب والده عن منزل الأسرة والذي كان سكيراً ومهملاً لعائلته، تاركاً له حملاً ثقيلاً في تدبر مصروف الأسرة وإعالتها.

_________________
فاني فاني فاني
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
مسك الجنه
مشرفة
مشرفة


الابراج : السمك
عدد المساهمات : 1145
تاريخ الميلاد : 24/02/1990
تاريخ التسجيل : 10/01/2010
العمر : 27

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: مسرحيه The Glass Menagerie   السبت أبريل 02 2011, 10:50

بالتوفيق للجميع

_________________
فاني فاني فاني
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
دعاء الجنه
عضو جديد
عضو جديد


الابراج : الحمل
عدد المساهمات : 17
تاريخ الميلاد : 12/04/1990
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/04/2011
العمر : 27

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: مسرحيه The Glass Menagerie   السبت أبريل 02 2011, 13:14

دي معلومات لكم ربنا يوفق الجميع

The Glass Menagerie
By Tennessee Williams (1911-1983)
Main Characters

Laura Wingfield - She is the crippled and very shy daughter of Amanda who keeps her hard pressed to finding a husband.

Tom Wingfield - As Laura’s sister, he is also pressed by his mother to find his sister a gentleman caller, and to keep the job at the shoe factory to support the family.

Amanda Wingfield - She is the mother of Tom and Laura and often digresses back to memories of her former days on the southern plantation farm and her night with 17 gentleman callers.

Jim O’Conner - He is a friend of Tom from the factory who Tom invites to dinner and Amanda treats as Laura’s first gentleman caller.

Minor Characters

Mr. Wingfield - He is Amanda’s husband who deserted the family about 16 years ago and is only seen in the play as a large photograph hung on the wall, but he is often referred to.

Settings

The Wingfield house - This takes up most of the stage and the different room are separated by curtains. There is the living and the kitchen.

The fire escape - This is on the side of the stage and is what the characters use to get into and out of the apartment.

Plot

Tom begins by introducing the play as a memory play of his own memory of his past. He introduces the character. The start of the play shows the Wingfield family eating dinner. Amanda keeps telling Tom to chew is food, and Tom gets thoroughly annoyed and leaves the table to smoke. Amanda tells her story of 17 gentleman callers. The next day, Laura is sitting at her desk in front of the typewriter chart when Amanda comes in angry. She asks Laura about the business college and tell Laura she found out that she dropped out. Laura explains that she couldn’t handle the class and went walking everyday. Later Amanda sits with Laura and asks her about a boy she liked. Laura points out Jim in the yearbook. Later, Tom gets into an argument with Amanda. Amanda cannot understand why Tom goes to the movies every night. Tom says he cannot stand working for the family like he does. Tom makes his speech about being an assassin and leaves to the movies. He returns late at night drunk, but looses the key. Laura opens the door and Tom tells her about the movie and the magic show he saw, giving her a scarf from the magic show. The next morning, Amanda makes Tom wake up as usual and prepares him for his work. Before he leaves, she asks him to bring home a gentleman caller for Laura. That night Tom informs his mother that he asked Jim O’Conner to dinner the next day. The next day, Laura and Amanda prepare furiously for the dinner getting well dressed and decorating everything. At night, Tom arrives with Jim. After they eat dinner, the lights go out and Amanda brings out the candles. Laura sits alone with Jim. They talk for a while, and Jim kisses Laura, but regrets it. He tells her that he is already engaged, and Laura is devastated. She gives him a glass unicorn which was broken during the night. Jim says good-bye to the family and leaves. Amanda is angry with Tom for not telling them that Jim was engaged, but Tom insists that he did not know. Tom leaves never to return.

Symbols

victrola - the escape and the private world of Laura.

jonquils - a reminder of Amanda’s glorious past.

magic show - the escape so desired by Tom.

glass menagerie - Laura’s private world, and the breaking of it.

fire escape - simply the escape from Amanda’s world. Tom seeks to leave it, but Laura stumbles whenever she does.

unicorn - Laura’s singularity, her return to reality, and her return to her retreat back into her world.

candelabrum - Tom’s relationship (or lack thereof) with his family.

scarf - Tom’s attempt to share his magic and desire for escape with Laura.

gentleman caller - the real world as opposed to Amanda’s imagined one.

Style

The organization of the play is out of the ordinary. Tom’s role as a narrator, character, and stage director is somewhat off the wall, and the use of the screen where the pictures are projected is not common. However, it does serve the purpose well as the pictures set the mood, and Tom acting as a character and narrator allows us to enter into Tom’s mind and his inner world and thoughts.

Philosophy

The idea conveyed in this play is that of image versus reality. Amanda has a picture of the world and of gentlemen callers but which isn’t a reality in the ghetto’s of St. Louis. Laura has her own imaginary reality. Another philosophy is that of escape. Tom tries to escape, and eventually does in the footsteps of his father. Laura is not seeking as hard to escape as Tom, although it would do her some good to escape her world and Amanda’s. She comes close with Jim, but is devastated and regress back into her world, probably deeper than she was before.

Quotes

“On those occasions they call me - Ell Diablo! Oh, I could tell you things to make you sleepless! My enemies plan to dynamite this place. They’re going to blow us all sky-high some night! I’ll be glad, very happy, and so will you! You’ll go up, up on a broomstick, over Blue Mountain with seventeen gentlemen callers!” Tom says this to Amanda in a fit of rage.

“But the most wonderfullest trick of all was the coffin trick.... There is a trick that would come in handy for me-get me out of this 2 by 4 situation.” Tom says this to Laura after coming back drunk from the movies and magic show.

“Laura! Why, Laura, you are sick, darling! Tom, help your sister into the living room, dear! ... I told her that it was just too warm this evening, but - Is Laura all right now?” Amanda tells this to Laura, Jim and Tom at the dinner.

“You know what I judge to be the trouble with you? Inferiority complex! Know what that is? That’s what they call it when someone low-rates himself! I understand it because I had it, too. Although my case was not so aggravated as yours seems to be.” Jim tells this to Laura when they are alone together after the dinner.
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
دعاء الجنه
عضو جديد
عضو جديد


الابراج : الحمل
عدد المساهمات : 17
تاريخ الميلاد : 12/04/1990
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/04/2011
العمر : 27

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: مسرحيه The Glass Menagerie   السبت أبريل 02 2011, 13:16


The Characters: In the introduction of The Glass Menagerie, the playwright describes the personalities of the drama’s main characters.

Amanda Wingfield: Mother of two adult children, Tom and Laura.

“A little woman of great vitality clinging frantically to another time and place...”
“Her life is paranoia…”
“Her foolishness makes her unwittingly cruel…”
“There is tenderness in her slight person…”
Laura Wingfield: Six years out of high school. Incredibly shy and introverted. She fixates on her collection of glass figurines.

She has “failed to establish contact with reality…”
“A childhood illness has left her crippled, one leg slightly shorter than the other…”
“She is like a piece of her own glass collection, too exquisitely fragile…”
Tom Wingfield: The poetic, frustrated son who works at a mindless warehouse job, supporting his family after his father left home for good. He also serves as the play’s narrator.

“His nature is not remorseless…”
“To escape from a trap (his overbearing mother and crippled sister) he has to act without pity.”
Jim O’Connor: The gentleman caller who has dinner with the Wingfields during the second part of the play. He is described as a “nice, ordinary young man.”

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
 
مسرحيه The Glass Menagerie
استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة 
صفحة 1 من اصل 1
 مواضيع مماثلة
-
» Sir Mix-A-Lot - Put 'Em On The Glass - Hot Video CLipe

صلاحيات هذا المنتدى:لاتستطيع الرد على المواضيع في هذا المنتدى
منتديات ابن الدلتا :: القسم التعليمي واللغات :: منتدي الغات والثقافات-
انتقل الى: