منتديات ابن الدلتا
عزيزي الزائر! سجلاتنا تفيد انك لست عضو لدينا في المنتدى,في حال رغبتم بالاِنضمام الى أسرتنا في المنتدى ينبغي عليكم التسجيل وان كنت عضو منتسب لدينا فعليك بالدخول
المدير العام
محمد شريف

 
الرئيسيةاليوميةمكتبة الصورس .و .جبحـثالتسجيلدخول

شاطر | 
 

 تلخيص مسرحيه philadelphia here i come

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي اذهب الى الأسفل 
كاتب الموضوعرسالة
محمد طاهر
Admin
Admin
avatar

الابراج : الميزان
عدد المساهمات : 1936
تاريخ الميلاد : 25/09/1977
تاريخ التسجيل : 04/12/2009
العمر : 40
الموقع : http://ibneldelta.ahlamontada.com
العمل/الترفيه : الانترنت

مُساهمةموضوع: تلخيص مسرحيه philadelphia here i come   الثلاثاء ديسمبر 21 2010, 13:47

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم


كليه لاداب


قسم اللغه الانجليزيه


الفرقه الرابعه







The theme









1:- Themes that the doctor said :-

1:- human conflict
2:- family relation
3:- conflict or hesitation
4:- self-division
5:- failure ( achieve hopes - love - communication - social society - church - having a common memory - learn from old mistakes - ideal )
6:- contrast between illusion and reality

ALL ITS EXPLANATION IS IN THE SECOND PART OF THEMES ( Themes that critics said )



2:- Themes that critics said :-
Philadelphia, Here I Come! is, on one hand, a traditional play about a young man’s coming of age; on the other it is an experimental presentation of the complex contradictions that form personality. These two themes work together in the study of a family that is pathologically unable to communicate.

The theme of coming of age, tracing a young man’s difficult separation from his family and his first halting steps toward autonomy, is familiar in modern drama. Parallels may be seen in Tennessee William’s The Glass Menagerie (pr. 1944), Frank Gilroy’s The Subject Was Roses (pb. 1962), and Neil Simon’s Broadway Bound (pr. 1986). In the case of Gar, the process of leaving home is complicated by his role as only son of a father who, though unable to express his love, or any feeling at all, nevertheless depends on him. Gar recognizes this dependence in their final conversation about business details that S. B. must now look after himself. However, like Tom in The Glass Menagerie, he must leave, driven away by the dependent parent.

He is driven away by more than his father. He sees few opportunities for himself in Ireland, in contrast to his fantasized world of opportunity in America. Furthermore, at home he has failed in love, having proposed to a woman who soon after married someone else. He has even failed to form significant friendships. America, even with Aunt Lizzie, must offer more than Ireland and his father.

Though Gar seems resolute in his decision to leave home, he is in fact wracked with doubts. He must regularly and deliberately cajole himself back into a mood of optimism. The conflicts and complexities underlying his decision are revealed in the conversations and debates between his public and private selves.

The debates expand to other issues as well, revealing the complexities and contradictions involved in all human behavior. For example, Private Gar reveals his desire to talk to S. B. about something, anything, of significance. Given the opportunity, however, Public Gar remains tongue-tied. On the other hand, he has plenty to say to Kate when she visits, all of it unfortunate, and all in contradiction to what Private wants to say. In fact, Gar’s relationships with all the other characters in the play reveal his repeated conflict between inner desires and outer actions.

Significantly, S. B.’s final speech (about his memory of walking Gar to school) reveals that he, too, has the same conflicts. The man who has seemed to the audience to be gruff and unfeeling suddenly tells a warm and sentimental story: “And at the heel of the hunt I had to go with him myself, the two of us, hand in hand, as happy as larks—we were that happy, Madge.” Like Gar, S. B. has a private self quite unlike the self everyone sees, and he is equally unable to break through that facade.

Because Gar and his father (and, presumably, the other characters as well) cannot break through their public selves, they cannot ever communicate. Each remains forever unaware of the other’s well-hidden inner life. They are unaware, too, of the similarities between them that Madge observes. Gar’s departure remains his only hope, though the fact that he maintained his facade when he met his aunt and uncle suggests that he will be no different, thus no happier, in his new home.















Episodes summary ( means also the plot )

Episode 1
Philadelphia, Here I Come! begins the evening before Gar O’Donnell is to leave home for Philadelphia. He has finished his last day of work in his father’s dry-goods store. He jokes with Madge, the housekeeper, as she prepares his tea, and then he begins to fantasize about life in the United States.
This fantasy, like all of his private thoughts, appears to the audience in the character of Private Gar, unheard by the other characters and unseen by anyone. Gar’s first fantasy is wild and exuberant, with images of flying in a plane and playing football. Madge enters, and they briefly discuss his father, who has apparently expressed no thoughts or feelings about his son’s departure. While Gar expresses disdain for old S. B. (Private Gar calls him Screwballs), he is clearly pained by the estrangement.
At this moment S. B. enters with a question about a delivery to the shop, and his immediate departure sets off a long fantasy scene between Public and Private Gar. Gar imagines his first day at work in a Philadelphia hotel, then, accompanied by a recording of Felix Mendelssohn’s Violin Concerto, thinks of his long-dead mother. He breaks the melancholy mood with some Irish music, but it, too, holds associations, recalling his proposal of marriage to Katie Doogan.
That memory scene appears in its entirety. Kate resists Gar’s insistent proposal because he does not make enough money for them to live on. Finally he confesses his secret income from selling eggs. Though the profits are smaller than Kate first imagines, she yields and takes Gar immediately to talk to her father, Senator Doogan.
At the Doogan house Gar can only stutter in front of the self-important senator, who promptly reveals his intentions for Kate to marry someone else. Gar leaves in disgrace, and the next memory is of the newspaper announcement of Kate’s wedding. In another attempt to break the mood, Gar imagines a farcical scene with his father, followed by a fantasy of picking up a woman in the United States.
Once again Madge breaks in on the fantasy, calling him in to his meal. She reveals, in passing, that her niece has had a baby girl and has promised to name it for her. As S. B. joins Gar for tea, Private mocks him mercilessly, providing accurate predictions of everything he will say. The pain beneath the mockery emerges as Private reveals, “Screwballs, we’ve eaten together like this for the past twenty-odd years, and never once in all that time have you made as much as one unpredictable remark.” He pleads (in his thoughts) for that unpredictable remark, that one thing that might tempt him to stay. His thoughts are interrupted by the entrance of Master Boyle, the drunken schoolteacher, who has come to say good-bye to Gar and, incidentally, to borrow ten shillings.

Episode 2
The first scene begins with more fantasy role-playing. Public and Private act out a scene with Gar as a United States senator. As Gar checks his immigration papers he is thrown back in memory again, this time to the day his uncle and aunt, Con and Lizzy Sweeney, came to visit and offer him the job in Philadelphia. Lizzy dominates the scene, energetic, garrulous, and a bit drunk. Gar wants to hear stories about the mother he never knew, but Lizzy is too easily distracted. She returns repeatedly to the advantages of the United States, with an emphasis on her possessions. At the end of the visit, she admits her plot to bribe her only nephew into her childless home. Undeterred by her selfish motive, Gar agrees to move to Philadelphia.
Scene 2 returns to the present and to a brief criticism of Lizzy’s vulgarity and possessiveness. To end the musing, Gar decides to go out to find his friends. He returns almost immediately with Ned, Tom, and Joe. Ned, the leader, can talk of nothing but football and women, with support from Tom. Gar attempts to speak of his departure, but Ned changes the subject. He recounts in graphic detail one of his sexual escapades, while Private counterpoints with what really happened. Finally Ned prepares to lead the group in quest of new women, pausing to give Gar his belt as a good-bye gift.
Joe, the quietest of the group, stays behind, but Gar sends him off with the others. Private realizes that “they’re louts, ignorant bloody louts,” though he wants to remember that there were good times too. This musing is interrupted by Kate, who has also come to say good-bye. The moment is awkward, and Gar manages to insult her before she leaves. The scene ends with a rush of memory, with disconnected sentences and phrases from the past.

Episode 3
begins a short time later. Gar, S. B., and Madge have gathered to say their evening rosary. Gar’s imagination, revealed by Private, is again active. He recalls a spring afternoon with his father, fishing from a blue boat on a lake. Prayers over, he tries to ask his father about that day, but he is interrupted by the arrival of Canon Mick O’Byrne.
The canon is a regular visitor, here for his nightly game of checkers. Gar sees the scene as another indication of indifference to his departure. As before, Private mocks mercilessly, then lapses into melancholy. Gar goes to his room to play Mendelssohn, hearing in the music the story of fishing from the blue boat. He regrets that the two participants in that event are unable to talk to each other.
scene 2, takes place in the middle of the night. Neither Gar nor S. B. can sleep, and they meet in the kitchen. Wanting to talk, Gar is only able to remind his father of household and business details that need attention. Finally, S. B. awkwardly advises Gar to sit at the back of the airplane, where it is safest. With this opening, Gar asks about the blue boat, only to find that his father cannot remember it. Disappointed, he leaves the room.
Madge returns from a visit to her niece and the new baby, who will be called Brigid, not Madge. To her S. B. is able to say things he could not say to Gar, and in his one long speech of the play he recounts his memory of walking hand in hand with Gar on his first day of school. When he leaves, Madge recalls a memory of her own: When S. B. was Gar’s age “he was the very same as him: leppin, and eejitin’ about and actin’ the clown; as like as two peas.” Gar comes in to say good-night to Madge and to utter one more time his doubts about leaving home.










The setting

IT IS IN OUR BOOK PAGE 14


Character analysis

Gareth (Gar) O’Donnell (Public)

who is in his early twenties and is the son of a small shopkeeper in the Ballybeg, a small village in County Donegal, Ireland. On the eve of his departure for Philadelphia, where he will live with his aunt and uncle, Gar is eager to escape the limitations of life in Ireland: the taciturn father who cannot show affection, the girl who married another man, the friends caught in a state of perpetual adolescence, and the job with little present and no future. America represents the proverbial land of opportunity for Gar, but to pursue that opportunity he will have to leave the father and the country that—however they madden him—he loves deeply. The play catches Gar at the moment of absolute and irreversible transition from one life to another, and he is intelligent enough to sense what that transition will mean.

Gareth (Gar) O’Donnell (Private)

the unseen Gar, “the man within, the conscience, the alter ego, the secret thoughts, the id.” Only Gar Public can see or hear Gar Private, and Gar Public never looks at him, even when they converse, because “One cannot look at one’s alter ego.” The two Gars are played by different actors and are always together. Gar Public is polite, quiet, and ordinary (at least while he is with others). Gar Private is sardonic, flip, irreverent, and constantly ready to identify and laugh at the attitudes and foibles of both Irishmen and Americans.

S. B. O’Donnell

Gar’s father, a dour shopkeeper, a creature of habit who finds it almost impossible to put his feelings into words and so cannot frame a farewell for the son whom he probably will never see again. His sleeplessness and inability to concentrate on the newspaper are the only signs of the deep emotion that he is feeling. Gar, driven to desperation by his failure to make contact with his father, thinks of him as “Screwballs” or “Skinflint,” but Madge believes that Gar will end up just like his father.

Madge

the unmarried live-in housekeeper for Gar and his father. Kind and more an old friend of the family than a servant, she is the closest thing to a mother that Gar (whose mother died in childbirth) has known. Wise about both father and son, she tries to help bridge the gap between them, but there is little that she can do. Madge combines a sharp tongue with the warmest and most unselfish of natures; she is one of the world’s givers.

Kate Doogan

the lively Irish beauty whom Gar loves and who loves him. The rosy future that they plan, with seven boys and seven girls, is destroyed partly by Gar’s lack of prospects but also by his timidity. Knowing that he cannot really support a family, he is hesitant to speak to Kate’s father, so she marries an older, established man. Her experience thus duplicates that of Gar’s mother, who was twenty-five years younger than Gar’s father, and epitomizes a typical Irish problem of the time, when economic difficulties led men to postpone marriage until their forties and made May-December unions the norm.

Senator Doogan

Kate’s father. Although he is not hostile to Gar, he wants “the best” for his daughter and so encourages her to marry a man with more money.

Master Boyle

Gar’s old schoolmaster. Almost a stereotype of the mind gone to waste in a stultifying atmosphere, he is pathetic in his pompous arrogance as he dispenses advice on his way to the pub, where he now spends most of his time.

Lizzy and Con Sweeney

Gar’s aunt and uncle, who have emigrated to Philadelphia and want Gar to come to live with them. Caricatures of Irish Americans, they are extravagant in their praise of all that America has to offer at the same time that they make a pilgrimage to honor the old sod. Crass and materialistic, with a propensity to drink and grow sentimental, they have combined the weaker elements of both cultures and hint at what might lie ahead for Gar.

Ben Burton

the Sweeneys’ American friend, who has come to Ballybeg with them. He is the only one in the play who recognizes that a place is just a place: “Ireland—America—what’s the difference?”

Ned , Tom, and Joe

Gar’s friends, who come to bid him farewell only because Madge has invited them to tea. Poorly educated and without prospects in the stagnant economy of Ballybeg, they are what Gar might become if he stayed. Trapped in perpetual adolescence, they spend most of their time telling impossible tales of their skill on the athletic field and their prowess with women.

Canon Mick O’Byrne

the parish priest. He fails in what Gar sees as his chief priestly function—making sense of life. His regular chess games with Gar’s father, complete with conversations that do not vary from night to night, are another instance of the stultifying routine that Gar is fleeing.













Dramatic Devices ( technical devices )

The most significant dramatic device in Philadelphia, Here I Come! is the use of two actors to play the role of Gar. The convention of a character revealing private thoughts through soliloquies or asides is traditional. On the other hand, Brian Friel’s splitting of a character into a public and a private self is highly innovative. Friel explains in his note on staging that “Private Gar, the spirit, is invisible to everybody, always. Nobody except Public Gar hears him talk. But even Public Gar, although he talks to Private Gar occasionally, never sees him and never looks at him. One cannot look at one’s alter ego.”

The device not only allows Gar to make private observations about the actions of the other characters but also provides opportunity for extensive revelation of Gar’s fantasy life. Gar talks to himself, acts out imaginary scenes, and reenacts scenes from his memory. Without the alter ego, these scenes would be available only through asides and soliloquies or through speeches of exposition (which would be uncharacteristic of characters who barely speak in one another’s presence).

The closest parallel is Arthur Miller’s use of acted memory scenes in Death of a Salesman (pr., pb. 1949). As in Philadelphia, Here I Come! these memories help to reveal the motives for Willy Loman’s present actions. Even more significantly, in Miller’s play the character of Ben, Willy’s brother, functions as a kind of self-manufactured conscience, goading Willy to action. Ben remains, however, a shadowy figure, an undeveloped alter ego. Friel, in contrast, moved the private self to the centre of the play, exploiting all of its possibilities.

One additional technique in the play which deserves brief attention is the masterfully appropriate use of music. On two occasions Gar plays a recording of Mendelssohn’s Violin Concerto, a particularly emotional and melancholy composition. In each case the music moves Gar into nearly maudlin reminiscences; with great effectiveness the music works on the audience as well. Playgoers hear it with him and, feeling the effect, understand his reaction.

Technical Devices that the doctor said :-

1:- split character
2:- shift of moods
3:- flashbacks
4:- usage of light and dark
5:- supra realizm
6:- realizm
7:- varity of tones of speech / language / song
8:- dancing and body language
9:- shift of scenes













Critical Context

The critical context of Philadelphia, Here I Come! is suggested by the two thematic interpretations of the play. It is at once part of a long tradition of coming-of-age plays and of the experimental movement of the 1960’s.
As a play about growing up, Brian Friel’s treatment of the theme risks criticism for sentimentality. The subject of leaving home is emotional enough, and the melancholy music of Mendelssohn’s Violin Concerto only underscores this sentimental thrust. In the closing moments, when Gar and S. B. privately reveal the significant memories they cannot share with each other, the mood is especially moving. However, Friel rises above sentimentality by his masterful exploitation of comedy. Private’s satiric commentary on the action, as well as some moments of pure slapstick, helps to keep the play from becoming maudlin.
So, too, does the experimental technique. The clearly nonrealistic method of presenting one character with two actors helps to dispel the sentimentality invited by the surface of the story. In fact, it is the familiarity of the story that allows the experimental technique to work. Though the 1960’s saw significant experimentation in dramatic presentations, the mainstream, popular plays remained fairly traditional. Friel’s experiment was an exception. In fact, it enjoyed a long run on Broadway in 1966. It has been characterized by Christopher Fitz-Simon as one of the most important plays of the 1960’s. The tension between the familiar, sentimental plot and the highly experimental technique emerged as the decisive factor in creating the play’s commercial and critical success.

منقوله من علاء طالب بالفرقه الثالثه كليه اداب قسم اللغه الانجليزيه

_________________

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
http://ibneldelta.ahlamontada.com
 
تلخيص مسرحيه philadelphia here i come
استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة 
صفحة 1 من اصل 1

صلاحيات هذا المنتدى:لاتستطيع الرد على المواضيع في هذا المنتدى
منتديات ابن الدلتا :: القسم التعليمي واللغات :: منتدي الغات والثقافات-
انتقل الى: