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 مصطلحات الادب الانجليزي

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الابراج : الميزان
عدد المساهمات : 1936
تاريخ الميلاد : 25/09/1977
تاريخ التسجيل : 04/12/2009
العمر : 40
الموقع : http://ibneldelta.ahlamontada.com
العمل/الترفيه : الانترنت

مُساهمةموضوع: مصطلحات الادب الانجليزي   الأربعاء أكتوبر 20 2010, 10:27

These are Literary Terms for poetry and play


Allegory: A narrative in which literal meaning corresponds clearly and directly to symbolic meaning. x

For example, the literal story in John Bunyan’s The Pilgrim’s Progress—Christian’s journey from the City of Destruction to the Celestial City—is an allegory for the spiritual journey from sin to holiness. x

Anecdote: The brief narration of a single event or incident. x


Aphorism: A concise expression of insight or wisdom: “The vanity of others offends our taste only when it offends our vanity” (Friedrich Nietzsche, Beyond Good and Evil). x

Autobiography: The nonfictional story of a person’s life, told by that person. St. Augustine’s Confessions is an early, canonical work in this genre (see also memoir,below). x


Ballad: Traditionally, a folk song telling a story or legend in simple language, often with a refrain. A number of poets outside the folk tradition have adopted the ballad form, as Samuel Taylor Coleridge did in “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner.” x

Biography: The nonfictional story of a person’s life. James Boswell’s Life of Johnson is one of the most celebrated works of biography. When the author of a biography is also its subject, the work is an autobiography (see above). x

Black comedy: Disturbing or absurd material presented in a humorous manner, usually with the intention to confront uncomfortable truths. Joseph Heller’s Catch-22 is a notable example. x

Burlesque: A humorous imitation of a serious work of literature. The humor often arises from the incongruity between the imitation and the work being imitated. x

For example, Alexander Pope’s The Rape of the Lock uses the high diction of epic poetry to talk about a domestic matter. x


Confessional poetry: An autobiographical poetic genre in which the poet discusses intensely personal subject matter with unusual frankness. The genre was popular from the late 1950s to the late 1960s, due in part to Robert Lowell’s Life Studies (1959). x

Didactic literature: Literature intended to instruct or educate. For example, Virgil’s Georgics contains farming advice in verse form. x

Dirge: A short poetic expression of grief. A dirge differs from an elegy (see below) in that it often is embedded within a larger work, is less highly structured, and is meant to be sung. Ariel’s song “Full fathom five thy father lies” in Shakespeare’s The Tempest is an example of a dirge. x


Drama: A composition that is meant to be performed. The term often is used interchangeably with play (see below), but drama is a broader term that includes some forms that may not strictly be defined as plays, such as radio broadcasts, comedy sketches, and opera. x

Dramatic monologue: A poem that contains words that a fictional or historical character speaks to a particular audience. Alfred, Lord Tennyson’s “Ulysses” is a famous example. x


Dystopic literature: A genre of fiction that presents an imagined future society that purports to be perfect and utopian but that the author presents to the reader as horrifyingly inhuman. Usually the author intends to warn contemporary readers that their own society resembles, or is in danger of resembling, this flawed future world. George Orwell’s 1984 and Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World
are well-known works of dystopic literature. Eclogue: A short pastoral poem (see below) in the form of a soliloquy (see below) or dialogue between two shepherds. Virgil’s Eclogues is the most famous example of this genre. x

Elegy: A formal poem that laments the death of a friend or public figure, or, occasionally, a meditation on death itself. In Greek and Latin poetry, the term applies to a specific type of meter (alternating hexameters and pentameters) regardless of content, but only some elegies in English obey that meter. Percy Bysshe Shelley’s poem “Adonais,” which mourns the death of John Keats, is an example of an elegy. x

Epic: A lengthy narrative that describes the deeds of a heroic figure, often of national or cultural importance, in elevated language. Strictly, the term applies only to verse narratives like Beowulf or Virgil’s Aeneid, but it is used to describe prose, drama, or film works of similar scope, such as Leo Tolstoy’s War and Peace or Victor Hugo’s Les Misérables. x

Epigram: A succinct, witty statement, often in verse. For example, William Wordsworth’s observation “The child is the father of the man.” x

Essay: A form of nonfictional discussion or argument that Michel de Montaigne pioneered in the 1500s. Essays are flexible in form: although they usually are short prose works, there are also examples of book-length essays (by John Locke) and verse essays (by Alexander Pope). x


Fable: A short prose or verse narrative, such as those by Aesop, that illustrates a moral, which often is stated explicitly at the end. Frequently, the characters in a fable are animals that embody different human character traits. x

Fiction: An invented narrative, as opposed to one that reports true events. x


Legend: A story about a heroic figure derived from oral tradition and based partly on fact and partly on fiction. The terms legend and myth (see below) are often used interchangeably, but legends are typically rooted in real historical events, whereas myths are primarily supernatural. The stories of King Arthur and Robin Hood are examples of legends. x


Lyric: A short poetic composition that describes the thoughts of a single speaker. Most modern poetry is lyrical (as opposed to dramatic or narrative), employing such common forms as the ode and sonnet. x


Memoir: An autobiographical work. Rather than focus exclusively on the author’s life, it pays significant attention to the author’s involvement in historical events and the characterization of individuals other than the author. A famous example is Winston Churchill’s Memoirs of the Second World War. x


Metafiction: Fiction that concerns the nature of fiction itself, either by reinterpreting a previous fictional work or by drawing attention to its own fictional status. Examples of the former include John Gardner’s Grendel, which retells the Anglo-Saxon epic Beowulf from a new perspective, and Michael Cunningham’s The Hours, which portrays three women connected to Virginia Woolf’s Mrs. Dalloway, including Woolf herself. An example of the latter is Milan Kundera’s The Unbearable Lightness of Being, in which the narrator tells the story and simultaneously comments on his own telling of the story. x


Myth: A story about the origins of a culture’s beliefs and practices, or of supernatural phenomena, usually derived from oral tradition and set in an imagined supernatural past. Ovid’s Metamorphosessee above) is a famous early example. Some writers, such as William Blake and William Butler Yeats, have invented their own myths. Myths are similar, but not equivalent, to legends ( Noir: A fiction genre, popularized in the 1940s, with a cynical, disillusioned, loner protagonist. Noir often involves crime or the criminal underworld. The term stems from “film noir,” which describes films of similar style and content. Classic examples of noir fiction include Raymond Chandler’s The Big Sleep and Dashiell Hammett’s The Maltese Falcon. x


Nonfiction: A narrative work that reports true events. x


Novel: A fictional prose narrative of significant length. Since the novel form became popular in the 1700s, however, the term has come to describe other works—nonfiction novels, novels in verse, short novels, and others—that do not necessarily fit this strict definition. x



Autobiographical novel: A novel that tells a nonfictional, autobiographical story but uses novelistic techniques, such as fictionalized dialogue or anecdotes, to add color, immediacy, or thematic unity. Maya Angelou’s I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings is an autobiographical novel. x

Bildungsroman: A German term, meaning “formation novel,” for a novel about a child or adolescent’s development into maturity, with special focus on the protagonist’s quest for identity. James Joyce’s A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man is a notable example. x

Epistolary novel: A novel written in the form of letters exchanged by characters in the story, such as Samuel Richardson’s Clarissa or Alice Walker’s The Color Purple. This form was especially popular in the 1700s. x


Historical novel: A novel set in an earlier historical period that features a plot shaped by the historical circumstances of that period. Michael Ondaatje’s The English Patient, written in the early 1990s, portrays a tragic romance set against the backdrop of World War II. x


Novel of ideas: A novel, such as Jean-Paul Sartre’s Nausea, that the author uses as a platform for discussing ideas. Character and plot are of secondary importance. x


Novel of manners: A novel that focuses on the social customs of a certain class of people, often with a sharp eye for irony. Jane Austen’s novels are prime examples of this genre. x




Picaresque novel: Originally, a realistic novel detailing a scoundrel’s exploits. The term grew to refer more generally to any novel with a loosely structured, episodic plot that revolves around the adventures of a central character. Cervantes’s Don Quixote is a classic picaresque novel. x


Social protest novel: A novel in which the author’s aim is to tell a story that illuminates and draws attention to contemporary social problems with the goal of inciting change for the better. Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin, which exposed the horrors of African- American slavery, and John Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath, which popularized the plight of penniless migrant workers during the Great Depression, are examples. x


Verse novel: A full-length fictional work that is novelistic in nature but written in verse rather than prose. Examples include Aleksandr Pushkin’s Eugene Onegin and Vikram Seth’s The Golden Gate. x

Novella: A work of fiction of middle length, often divided into a few short chapters, such as Henry James’s Daisy Miller. x



Ode: A serious lyric poem, often of significant length, that usually conforms to an elaborate metrical structure. An example is William Wordsworth’s “Ode: Intimations of Immortality.” x



Parable: A short narrative that illustrates a moral by means of allegory (see above). x


Parody: A humorous and often satirical imitation of the style or particular work of another author. Henry Fielding’s Shamela is a parody of Samuel Richardson’s Pamela. x


Pastiche: A work that imitates the style of a previous author, work, or literary genre. Alternatively, the term may refer to a work that contains a hodgepodge of elements or fragments from different sources or influences. Pastiche differs from parody in that its imitation is not meant as a form of mockery. For example, John Fowles’s The French Lieutenant’s Woman was written in the 1960s but imitates the style of the Victorian novel. x


Pastoral: A celebration of the simple, rustic life of shepherds and shepherdesses, usually written by a sophisticated, urban writer. Christopher Marlowe’s poem “The Passionate Shepherd to His Love” epitomizes pastoral themes. x


Play: A story meant to be performed in a theater before an audience. Most plays are written in dialogue form and are divided into several acts. Many include stage directions and instructions for sets and costumes. x



Comedy: A lighthearted play characterized by humor and a happy ending. x




Epic theater: Bertolt Brecht’s Marxist approach to theater, which rejects emotional and psychological engagement in favor of critical detachment. His plays The Threepenny OperaMother Courage are two famous works in this genre. x


Farce: A form of high-energy comedy that plays on confusions and deceptions between characters and features a convoluted and fast-paced plot. Farce often incorporates buffoonery, slapstick, and stock characters to provoke uproarious laughter. Molière was a master of farce with such plays as The Imaginary Invalid. x


Miracle play: A play from the Middle Ages featuring saints or miraculous appearances by the Virgin Mary. x




Morality play: A play written in the fifteenth or sixteenth centuries that presents an allegory (see above) of the Christian struggle for salvation. x


Mystery play: A short play based on a biblical story. Mystery plays, popular in the Middle Ages, often were presented in cycles, in which dozens of plays were performed at different locations throughout a city and collectively presented the most significant moments in the Bible. x




Noh drama: A ritualized form of Japanese drama that evolved in the 1300s involving masks and slow, stylized movement. x




Problem play: A play that confronts a contemporary social problem with the intent of changing public opinion on the matter. Henrik Ibsen popularized this form in plays such as Hedda Gabler .x


Tragedy: A serious play that ends unhappily for the protagonist. Sophocles’ Antigone is one of the best-known Greek tragedies. x

Tragicomedy: A play such as Shakespeare’s A Winter’s Tale that mixes elements of tragedy and comedy. x

One-act play: A play consisting of a single act, without intermission and running usually less than an hour. Edward Albee’s Zoo Story is a well-known example. x


Primitivist literature: Works that express a preference for the natural over the artificial in human culture, and a belief that the life of primitive cultures is preferable to modern lifestyles. Primitivism is often associated with a nostalgia for the lost innocence of a natural, childlike past. Jean-Jacques Rousseau was one of the foremost advocates of primitivism in works such as Julie, ou la Nouvelle Héloïse. x




Propaganda: A work of didactic literature that aims to influence the reader on a specific social or political issue. Thomas Paine’s Common Sense is an example of propaganda instrumental in the American Revolution. x


Prose: Any composition not written in verse. The basic unit of prose is the sentence, which distinguishes it from free verse (see poetry, above), in which the basic unit is a line of verse. Prose writing can be rhythmic, but on the whole, rhythm in prose is less pronounced than in verse. Prose works encompass everything from Henry James’s The Ambassadors, with its elaborate sentences, to Amy Tan’s interconnected stories in The Joy Luck Club. x


Prose poem: A poetic work that features the strong rhythms of free verse (see Rhythm and Meter,above) but is presented on the page in the form of prose, without line breaks. Arthur Rimbaud’s Illuminations is an example of a prose poem. x



Romance: A nonrealistic story, in verse or prose, that features idealized characters, improbable adventures, and exotic settings. Although love often plays a significant role, the association of “romance” with “love” is a modern phenomenon. Romances, such as Edmund Spenser’s The Faerie Queene, were particularly popular in the Middle Ages and Renaissance. x




Chivalric romance: A romance that describes the adventures of medieval knights and celebrates their strict code of honor, loyalty, and respectful devotion to women. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight is an example of a chivalric romance. x




Satire: A work that exposes to ridicule the shortcomings of individuals, institutions, or society, often to make a political point. Jonathan Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels is one of the most well known satires in English. x




Science fiction: Fiction that is set in an alternative reality—often a technologically advanced future—and that contains fantastical elements. The genre traces its roots to the works of Jules Verne and H. G. Wells in the late 1800s. Notable 20th-century science fiction writers include Ray Bradbury and Isaac Asimov. x



Short story: A work of prose fiction that is much shorter than a novel (rarely more than forty pages) and focused more tightly on a single event. Katherine Mansfield’s “The Garden Party” is a masterful short story. x


Short-short story: A particularly compressed and truncated short story. Short-short stories are rarely longer than 1,000 words. x



Soliloquy: A speech, often in verse, by a lone character. Soliloquies are most common in drama, perhaps the most famous example being the “To be or not to be” speech in Shakespeare’s Hamlet

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الابراج : الميزان
عدد المساهمات : 1936
تاريخ الميلاد : 25/09/1977
تاريخ التسجيل : 04/12/2009
العمر : 40
الموقع : http://ibneldelta.ahlamontada.com
العمل/الترفيه : الانترنت

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: مصطلحات الادب الانجليزي   الأربعاء أكتوبر 20 2010, 10:28

هنا ستجدون شرحا ميسراً للمصطلحات الأدبية التى تستخدم فى كليات الآداب و التربية قسم اللغة الإنجليزية - كما أنها تنفع من يهوى الشعر Poetry و المسرح Drama و الروايةNovel و القصة القصيرة short story و المقال Essay و غيرها من الآداب و الفنون .

الفصل Act
============
هو قسم من أقسام المسرحية play و يتضمن كل فصل من فصول المسرحية
على مشاهد scenes بدأ من مشهد و احد و أكثر
و من المعروف ان المسرحيات الاغريقية كانت تعرض مرة واحدة بدون تقسيمها إلى فصول مع وجود فواصل يتدخل فيها الكورس chorus ثم تدخل الأديب هوراس Horace و أصر على تقسيم المسرحية إلى خمس فصول ثم انتقل ذلك الى الرومانسية الفرنسية و الادباء من العصر الاليزابيثى فى انجلترا ( نسبة الى الملكة Elizabeth الأولى ) كما نرى مثلاً فى مسرحيات شكسبير و كان الفضل فى نقل هذا البناء الجديد الى انجلترا يرجع الى الاديب المعروف Ben Jonson



الحدث Action
==============
إن الحدث هو مجمل القصة التى تسرى فى عمل أدبى مثل ( القصة - الرواية - المسرحية - القصيدة من النوع narrative - أو حتى العمل السينمائى )
كما ان الحدث يمكمن أن يمثل تتالى الأحداث و اندفاعها إلى الأمام فى العمل الدرامى ( المسرح ) و ليس ضروريا ان يتم ذلك بالحركة على خشبة المسرح ( stage ) و إنما من الممكن جدا أن يتطور الحدث بمجرد انكشاف الشخصيات أمامنا و نظرتنا لها كجمهور audience


aesopic language
===============
لهجة قصص أيسوب - كلنا سمعنا عن هذه الحكايات التى يتحدث فيها الطيور و الحيوانات كلمات غاية فى الحكمة - و مصطلح اللغة الأيسوبية استخدمه الأخ Mykhail Saltykov قاصدا به اللغة المخبأة ذات النبرة السياسية و طبعا كان المقصود هنا هو التهرب من الرقابة - و على القارئ أن يقرأ بين السطور و يفهم التلميحات المقصودة

aethetic distance
==============
مصطلح مهم رغم أنه غير مشهور و المقصود به هو العلاقة بين القارئ و العمل الأدبى و هى علاقة نفسية طبعاً - و يمكننا أن نقيس هذه العلاقة عن طريق قياس نظرة القارئ و مدى تقبله للعمل الأدبى .


affectation
============
هو استخدام لغة و محسنات غير مناسبة للموقف الأدبى أو شكل العمل الأدبى و مناسبته لا تتلائم مع هذا الأسلوب - و بالتالى فإن الأدباء يتحاشون الوقوع فى هذا الخطأ قدر الاستطاعة



Prose النثر
==========
هو المصطلح الذى يناقض الشعر poetry من حيث كونه شكل من اشكال اللغة يستمر للأمام مباشرة بدون تزيين و بدون ارتباط بالوزن و القياس و القافية rhythm , measure and rhyme الثلاثى الشهير فى الشعر
لكن لا ننسى طبعا أن هناك قصائد نثرية prose poems تحتوى على بعض الصور البلاغية figures of speech و قافية داخلية أيضاً


assonance = vocalic rhyme
====================
هى تكرار نفس صوت العلة vowel sound فى مسافة قريبة لتحقيق لكنة موسيقية معينة
و جايبلكم مثال من رائعة تنيسون Lotos Eaters
The Lotos blooms below the barren peak:
The Lotos blows by every winding creek:
All day the wind breathes low mellower tone
Thro' every hollow cave and alley lone,


امااااااااااا في الشعر

Metaphor الإستعارة
=========
هى أداة تصويرية تستخدم فى الشعر poetry و معناها
الإشارة الضمنية الى شئ ما بقصد شئ آخر.
مثلاً
Life a dark wood
The world a stage
حيث شبهت الجملة الأولى الحياة بأنها غابة مظلمة و المقصود ضمنياً أنها يسيطر القوى فيها على الضعيف
و الجملة الثانية الدنيا مسرح كبير

Simile التشبيه
===========
هى جملة تحنوى على تشبيه مباشر باستخدام أداة مثل like - as - resemble و هكذا
مثلاً
Life is like a dome of many-coloured glass

Metre
========
هو تكرار نمط موسيقى معين بين السطور الشعرية lines أو عبر المقاطع الشعرية stanzas
و ذلك باستخدام الضغط stress أو النبرة pitch
و من أنواعها iamb و dactyl

Onomatopoeia
===========
هو تقليد لصوت من اصوات الطبيعة فى الشعر أو أصوات الآلات
مثلاً
screech - babble - tick tock
تعتبر من أمثلتها

accent
-----------------------

هى اللهجة أو فى الشعر طريقة قراءة البيت
حيث يقسم البيت line or verse إلى مقاطع syllables و كل مقطع يسقط عليه ضغط stress or emphasis لكن طريقة النطق تختلف حسب مشاعر القارئ


لاحظ البيت التالى
All human things are subject to decay
And, when Fate summons, Monarchs must obey

يمكن قراءة البيتين بطرق عديد بما يزيد على 12 emphasis أو الضغط على الكلمة فى النطق و هذا يسمى تغير اللهجة accent
حيث يمكنك عمل stress عند :
all-human-when-fate-Monarchs-must-obey

_________________

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
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محمد طاهر
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الابراج : الميزان
عدد المساهمات : 1936
تاريخ الميلاد : 25/09/1977
تاريخ التسجيل : 04/12/2009
العمر : 40
الموقع : http://ibneldelta.ahlamontada.com
العمل/الترفيه : الانترنت

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: مصطلحات الادب الانجليزي   الأربعاء أكتوبر 20 2010, 10:30

التشبيه x 1 - SIMILE

A simile is the simplest figure of speech. It is an explicit comparison between two dissimilar parties to make them similar in one or more aspect by the use of an instrument (e.g. like, as, compare, liken; etc.) x


Any simile should have four components: x



tenor مشبة -1
vehicleمشبة بة - 2
instrument اداةالشبه - 3
ground وجة الشبة - 4





ex: x




For the world, which seems to lie


Before us like a land of dreams . . , x






Arnold's simile can be analyzed as follows: x




The tenor: the world




The vehicle: a land of dreams



The instrument: like



The ground or the aspects of similarity: happiness, peace of mind, and joy.



x


في هذا المثال شبة الشاعر العالم بأرض الأحلام فيكون وجه الشبه هو الفرح وصفاء الذهن والمشبه هو العالم المشبه بة هو ارضالأحلام والأداة هي مثل







There are different types of metaphors let us study the first one (implied or suggested metapor) x



The simplest definition of a metaphor refers to it as an implicit



X- comparison between two parties between two dissimilar parties to make them similar in one aspect or more without any use of instrument. x




The use of the "rose" in Burn's simile, "O, My love's like a red, red Rose," is different from its use in the following lines: x



She was our queen, our rose, our star,

And then she danced- O heaven, her dancing ! x







In the above lines, the poet likens the lady concerned ( Queen Elizabeth I) to a "rose", and a "star" without using an instrument. x







يبقى خد بالك الفرق بين التشبية والاستعارة اية ؟؟؟؟


بسيط جدا ان الاستعارة هى التشبية لكن خذفت منها اداة الشبه


يعنى فى المثال اللى بيوصف فية الشاعر الملكة بالوردة والملكة مستخدمش اداة تشبية زى (Like, as; etc.) وهو دة الفرق



يعنى لو جينا حللنا المثال هنلاقى ان الاستعارة تتكون من ثلاث اركان:






tenor : is the lady described



:vehicle




x 1- the rose 2-the star




groung: x



x 1- beauty of colour, tenderness*, and nice smell



x 2- brightness, majesty, and elevation





implicit : ضمنى



tenderness: رقة



ناخد بالنا يا جماعة الاستعارة اللى هى metaphor لها 3 انواع اللى هى :



1- suggested




2- mixed



3- compound





احنا شرحنا الاولى وهى الضمنية صح ؟؟؟؟؟
الضمنية دى لها شكلين تانيين هذكرهم

بالنسبة للاستعارة وننتقل على حاجة تانية لحد ما نفهم الاستعارة كويس ونقارنها بباقى المفاهيم نبقى تدخل فى انواعها لانها ممكن تلخبط المبتدئين اتفقنا؟؟؟

يلا نبتدى:





[size=16]We said before that the difference between the SIMILE and the METAPHOR is their formation; the SIMILE consists of the tenor, the vehicle, instrument, and the ground. While the METAPHOR have the same formation or components without the instrument. x







There are two other forms of the METAPHOR: x



x 1- The first is the one in which an attribute or quality of the vehicle is transferred to the tenor without being related. This is clear in the following line: x


She was our queen, our rose, our star, x
And then she danced- O heaven, her dancing! x








Here the first METAPHOR that we explained before is in the first line in which the poet likens his queen to a rose and a star, so his queen equals to the rose and the star. In the second line he says that this rose or star dances.A queen may dance, but neither a rose nor a star dances; and the description of the movement and the star as dancing is metaphorical. x






يبقى تانى شكل من الاستعارة هو ان صفة من المشبة بة تنقل الىالمشبة بطريقة غير مياشرة. يعنى المفروض ان الشاعر وصف الملكة بالزهرة والنجمة .... يبقى الملكة = الزهرة = النجمة. فوصف فى البيت اللى يعدها ان هذة الزهرة رقصت يبقىدة النوع التانى من الاستعارة لان الزهرة لا يمكن ان ترقص









The third form of the METAPHOR is the one in which the poet concretizes the abstract. x



EX: x




Love with youth flies swift away.x



Here the abstract noun "love" is made concrete "a bird that flies". x







الشكل الثالث انالشاعر يجعل من الشئ المعنوى كالحب مثلا شئ مادى محسوس كالطير.




يبقىكدة احنا خلصنا او نوع من الاستعارة اللى ليها ثلاثة اشكال:



1-اللى تختلف عن التشبية فى ان الاداة محذوفة


2-ان صفة من المشبة بة تنقل الى المشبة


3-الشاعر يجعل الشئ المعنوى مادى




فهمنا!!!



طيب نعرف ازاى لما نحل التمرين ....... يلا بينا؟؟






Tell me what form of Metaphor in the following lines: x



x 1- I hope my to see my pilot face to face


When I have crossed the the bar





x 2- He lash'd with vice, but spar'd the name






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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: مصطلحات الادب الانجليزي   الأربعاء أكتوبر 20 2010, 10:31

3- PERSONIFICATION

Personification is a metaphorical device used by poets when they : x

x 1- humanize objects

x 2- or when they attribute human qualities to nonhuman
objects or abstract ideas* x


In other words it is a type of metaphor in which the vehicle is confined* to a human being. When Robert Herrick says to the daffodils*:x
And having prayed together, we
Will go with you along,x



We realize that he is using the word "prayed" in a metaphorical sense. People pray, but the daffodils do not; and so they are personified in order to convince* the reader of the flower's delicacy*.x




هناالشاعر جعل من النرجس البرى إنسان يصلى ليقنع القارئ بجمال ورقة النرجس .... فهوتشخيص لانة اعطى النبات صفة من صفات الانسان او عمل من اعمالة وهىالصلاة



Let us analyze the following example: x
Let not ambition* mock* their useful toil,x



In this line the poet personifies both ambition by comparing it to someone who mocks ....mocks what????x


There is another personification ????

can you tell me what is it??? x



هنا الشــاعر جعلمن الفكرة المعنوية وهى الطموح انسان يخدع ويمكر .... يخدع او يسخر من من ؟؟... جاوب فى مشاركتك؟؟؟



Also the use of the third person pronouns (he, she, him, his, her) to refer to nonhuman objects is another device of making personification. Spenser personifies Phoebus* in "Eliza*":x
I saw Phoebus thrust out his golden head;x
Upon her to gaze: x






هنا
استخدام الشاعر للضمير تشخيص لانة اعتبر الة الجمالانسان
يوجد فى البيت الثانى ايضا تشخيص هل تستطع ان توضحةوتحللة؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟




يبقى التشخيص هوايــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــة ؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟:

1-
اعطاءالشاعر للافكار المعنوية صفة من صفات الانسان
2-
اعطاء الاشياء المادية(الجماد) صفة من صفات الانسان
3-
او استخدام ضمائرالغائب






اتمنى مشاركة الجميع للاستفادة .... لانى هنا ابدا منالمستوى المبتدئ ان تابعت معى وقمت بحل الاسئلة سوف تستفيد جدا ويمكن لك فيما بعدان تفهم الشعر الانجليزى وتحللة .... منتظر مشاركاتكم




Glossary: x

confined;
خصص

abstract ideas;
افكار معنوية

daffodils;
النرجسالبرى

convince;
يقنع

delicacy;
رقة

ambition;
طموح

mock;
يسخرمن

Eliza;
اسم قصيدة

Phoebus;
الة الشعر والجمال




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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: مصطلحات الادب الانجليزي   الأربعاء أكتوبر 20 2010, 10:33

- APOSTROPGHE *

It is a specified version of personification when poets address:x

x 1- absent or
x 2-dead person,
x 3- inanimate object, or
x 4- abstract idea as if they were human beings who are able to hear, listen and obey. When Robert Herrick says to the daffodils:x


Fair daffodils, we weep* to see
You haste away* so soon


He is apostrophizing them by addressing them as if they listened to and understand his message of the sympathy with their gradual decay.x



المناجاة سهلة جدا : هى شكل من اشكال التشخيص لكن الفرق ان الشاعربيكلم او بيناجى شخص غائب او ميت او فكرة معنوية او شئ غير بشرى على انة انسان حاضرامامة يفهم ويتكلم معه
كما نرى فى المثال ان الشاعر يتكلم مع النرجس البرى ويظهرلهم تعاطفة وحزنة على ذبولهم .. كان هذا النرجس يفهمة
وقد نلاحظ هذة المناجاةكثيرا فى مسرحيات الكاتب العظيم وليم شكسبير





Take another example: x

O, Death, where is thy* sting* x
O, Grave, where is thy victory, x
As we can see in these lines the Bible speaks to death as if it something alive after the victory of Jesus Christ over it when he rose again. Here death is an abstract idea. x



Another example: x

Thy salt is lodged forever in my blood

Here the poet addresses the see as if it is a human being








Glossary:

APOSTROPHE;


خد بالك من نطق الكلمة دى خاصة اخر صوت فيهاهو كسرة طويلة كتير بيغلط فى نطقها ودى وصلة فيها الكتابة الصوتية بتاعها ونطقليها



[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]



weep;
يبكى

haste away;
يضمحل ينتهى يموت

thy;
خد بالك ان اللغة الشعرية مختلفة عنالعادية فالكلمة دى بتساوى ضمير الملكية

المخاطب your

sting;
شوكة


منقول للفائده

محمـــــــــــــــــــــــــد
شريــــــــــــــــــــــــف

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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: مصطلحات الادب الانجليزي   السبت أبريل 02 2011, 10:57

جميل جدا يامحمد

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