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الابراج : الاسد
عدد المساهمات : 124
تاريخ الميلاد : 10/08/1991
تاريخ التسجيل : 09/12/2009
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مُساهمةموضوع: دراسات لغوية   الجمعة ديسمبر 18 2009, 17:46

Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language
(Source: An Introduction to Language by Victoria Fromkin and Robert Rodman, 6th Ed.)
Part One: Introduction to Linguistics
Every human knows at least one language, spoken or signed. Linguistics is the science of language, including the sounds, words, and grammar rules. Words in languages are finite, but sentences are not. It is this creative aspect of human language that sets it apart from animal languages, which are essentially responses to stimuli.
The rules of a language, also called grammar, are learned as one acquires a language. These rules include phonology, the sound system, morphology, the structure of words, syntax, the combination of words into sentences, semantics, the ways in which sounds and meanings are related, and the lexicon, or mental dictionary of words. When you know a language, you know words in that language, i.e. sound units that are related to specific meanings. However, the sounds and meanings of words are arbitrary. For the most part, there is no relationship between the way a word is pronounced (or signed) and its meaning.
Knowing a language encompasses this entire system, but this knowledge (called competence) is different from behavior (called performance.) You may know a language, but you may also choose to not speak it. Although you are not speaking the language, you still have the knowledge of it. However, if you don't know a language, you cannot speak it at all.
There are two types of grammars: descriptive and prescriptive. Descriptive grammars represent the unconscious knowledge of a language. English speakers, for example, know that "me likes apples" is incorrect and "I like apples" is correct, although the speaker may not be able to explain why. Descriptive grammars do not teach the rules of a language, but rather describe rules that are already known. In contrast, prescriptive grammars dictate what a speaker's grammar should be and they include teaching grammars, which are written to help teach a foreign language.
There are about 5,000 languages in the world right now (give or take a few thousand), and linguists have discovered that these languages are more alike than different from each other. There are universal concepts and properties that are shared by all languages, and these principles are contained in the Universal Grammar, which forms the basis of all possible human languages.

Part Two: Morphology and Syntax
Morphemes are the minimal units of words that have a meaning and cannot be subdivided further. There are two main types: free and bound. Free morphemes can occur alone and bound morphemes must occur with another morpheme. An example of a free morpheme is "bad", and an example of a bound morpheme is "ly." It is bound because although it has meaning, it cannot stand alone. It must be attached to another morpheme to produce a word.
Free morpheme: bad
Bound morpheme: ly
Word: badly
When we talk about words, there are two groups: lexical (or content) and function (or grammatical) words. Lexical words are called open class words and include nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs. New words can regularly be added to this group. Function words, or closed class words, are conjunctions, prepositions, articles and pronouns; and new words cannot be (or are very rarely) added to this class.
Affixes are often the bound morpheme. This group includes prefixes, suffixes, infixes, and circumfixes. Prefixes are added to the beginning of another morpheme, suffixes are added to the end, infixes are inserted into other morphemes, and circumfixes are attached to another morpheme at the beginning and end. Following are examples of each of these:
Prefix: re- added to do produces redo
Suffix: -or added to edit produces editor
Infix: -um- added to fikas (strong) produces fumikas (to be strong) in Bontoc
Circumfix: ge- and -t to lieb (love) produces geliebt (loved) in German
There are two categories of affixes: derivational and inflectional. The main difference between the two is that derivational affixes are added to morphemes to form new words that may or may not be the same part of speech and inflectional affixes are added to the end of an existing word for purely grammatical reasons. In English there are only eight total inflectional affixes:
-s3rd person singular presentshe waits
-edpast tenseshe waited
-ingprogressiveshe's eating
-enpast participleshe has eaten
-spluralthree apples
-'spossessiveLori's son
-ercomparativeyou are taller
-estsuperlativeyou are the shortest
The other type of bound morphemes are called bound roots. These are morphemes (and not affixes) that must be attached to another morpheme and do not have a meaning of their own. Some examples are ceive in perceive and mit in submit.
English Morphemes


  1. Free

    1. Open Class
    2. Closed Class

  2. Bound

    1. Affix

      1. Derivational
      2. Inflectional

    2. Root


There are six ways to form new words. Compounds are a combination of words, acronyms are derived from the initials of words, back-formations are created from removing what is mistakenly considered to be an affix, abbreviations or clippings are shortening longer words, eponyms are created from proper nouns (names), and blending is combining parts of words into one.
Compound: doghouse
Acronym: NBA (National Basketball Association) or scuba (self-contained underwater breathing apparatus)
Back-formation: edit from editor
Abbreviation: phone from telephone
Eponym: sandwich from Earl of Sandwich
Blending: smog from smoke and fog

Grammar is learned unconsciously at a young age. Ask any five year old, and he will tell you that "I eat" and "you eat," but his "dog eats." But a human's syntactical knowledge goes farther than what is grammatical and what is not. It also accounts for ambiguity, in which a sentence could have two meanings, and enables us to determine grammatical relationships such as subject and direct object. Although we may not consciously be able to define the terms, we unconsciously know how to use them in sentences.
Syntax, of course, depends on lexical categories (parts of speech.) You probably learned that there are 8 main parts of speech in grammar school. Linguistics takes a different approach to these categories and separates words into morphological and syntactic groups. Linguistics analyzes words according to their affixes and the words that follow or precede them. Hopefully, the following definitions of the parts of speech will make more sense and be of more use than the old definitions of grammar school books.
Open Class Words
Nouns_____ + plural endings
"dogs"
Det. Adj. _____ (this is called a Noun Phrase)
"the big dog"
Verbs____ + tense endings
"speaks"
Aux. ____ (this is called a Verb Phrase)
"have spoken"
Adjectives____ + er / est
"small"
Det. ____ Noun
"the smaller child"
AdverbsAdj. + ly
"quickly"
____ Adj. or Verb or Adv.
"quickly ran"
Closed Class Words
Determinersa, an, the, this, that, these,
those, pronouns, quantities
____ Adj. Noun
"this blue book"
Auxiliary Verbsforms of be, have, may,
can, shall
NP ____ VP
"the girl is swimming"
Prepositionsat, in, on, under, over, of____ NP (this is called a Prepositional Phrase)
"in the room"
Conjunctionsand, but, orN or V or Adj. ____ N or V or Adj.
"apples and oranges
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: دراسات لغوية   الأربعاء فبراير 17 2010, 09:14

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